The Ringing Rocks

The ringing rocks are the rocks that ring like bells when struck with a hammer. The rocks located in various places all over the world, but the most famous sites located in Southeastern Pennsylvania, these include the Stony Garden (Haycock, Bucks County), the Devil’s Race Course (Franklin County), others in the South Mountain region and at Pottsdown, and the Bell Rock Range of Western Australia. Set in a forested area, the ringing rocks appear in a field that has no vegetation except lichens. Ten feet thick and seven acres around, the rocks are composed of diabase, in other words part of the Earth’s basic crustal structure. Though this is undoubtedly a natural phenomenon, it is an odd one for which no fully satisfactory explanation has ever been proposed.


By far the most studied, is in Upper Black Eddy in Bucks County. It is located a mile west of the Delaware River near the New Jersey state line. While in Australia the ringing rocks located in Bell Rock Range, it is a large ultramafic gabbro-peridotite intrusion in the Musgrave Block of Western Australia and composed of massive, heavily indurated intrusive rocks and forms a prominent 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) long range of mountains and hills. The intrusion is called the Bell Rock Range because, when struck, the rocks ring like a bell.

In June 1890 Dr. J. J. Ott, backed by a brass band, played a few selections on the rocks for an appreciative Buckwampum Historical Society gathering. Ott, in short, had learned what other investigators have since confirmed: that the rocks don’t have to be in their natural location to ring. They do not even have to be intact. Curiously, though made up of the same materials, not all of the Ringing Rocks ring — only about 30 percent of them, according to those who have experimented with them.

In 1965 geologist Richard Faas of Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania, conducted laboratory experiments using sensitive equipment.He learned that when he struck a ringing rock, a series of subaudible frequencies were produced, and these added up to a tone that could be heard by the human ear. However, he could not determine a specific physical cause. Some writers have made remarkable — almost occult — claims for the ringing rocks, asserting that something about the rock field spooks animals, even insects,which make a point of keeping their distance. According to investigator Michael A. Frizzell, since the area is barren, open, and hotter than the surrounding forest during the summer, thus generally inhospitable to living creatures.

More interesting is a claim made by the late Ivan T. Sanderson, though since then there has been no published replication: “[T]here are some larger rocks which, when hit appropriately, give rise to a whole scale; . . . two different ringers when knocked together while suspended on wires produce (invariably, it seems) but one tone, however many different combinations are used.” Curiously the kinds of rock possessing such talents vary. The absence of clear patterns in the creation of such odd geological phenomena continues to frustrate theorists. Ringing rocks have been noted all over the world and it also can be found on: Musical Stones of Skiddaw - Cumbria, England; Ringing Rocks Point of Interest - Ringing Rocks, Montana, United States; The Hill of the Bells (Cerro de las Campanas) - Querétaro, Mexico; The Ringing Stone - Tiree, Scotland.

Sources:
Unexplained!: “Strange Sightings, Incredible Occurences & Puzzling Physical Phenomena” by Jerome Clark;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ringing_rocks

Pics source:
http://www.davidhanauer.com/buckscounty/ringingrocks/
04:50 | 2 komentar

Athanasius Kircher's Map of Atlantis

Kircher was a German polymath of the 17th century and also one of the scholars to seriously investigate the Atlantis legend. Initially skeptical, he cautiously began reconsidering its credibility while assembling mythic traditions of numerous cultures in various parts of the world about a great flood. His research led him to the immense collection of source materials at the Vatican Library, where, as Europe’s foremost scholar, its formidable resources were at his disposal. It was here that he discovered a single piece of evidence which proved to him that the legend of Atlantis was actually fact.

Athanasius Kircher, was born on 2 May in either 1601 or 1602 in Geisa, Buchonia, near Fulda, currently Hesse, Germany, this Jesuit priest was also a pioneering mathematician, physicist, chemist, linguist, and archaeologist; the first to study phosphorescence; inventor of, among numerous futuristic innovations, the slide projector and a prototype of the microscope. The founding father of scientific Egyptology, he was the first serious investigation of temple hieroglyphs.

In 1665 Kircher found a well-preserved, treated-leather map purporting to show the configuration and location of Atlantis among the relatively few surviving documents from Imperial Rome in Vatican Library. The map was not Roman, but brought in the first century A.D. to Italy from Egypt, where it had been executed. It survived the demise of Classical Times, and found its way into the Vatican Library. Kircher copied it precisely, adding only a visual reference to the New World, and published it in his book, Mundus Subterraneus: The Subterranean World, in 1665. His caption states it is “a map of the island of Atlantis originally made in Egypt after Plato’s description,” which suggests it was created sometime following the 4th century B.C., perhaps by a Greek mapmaker attached to the Ptolemies. More probably, the map’s first home was the Great Library of Alexandria, where numerous books and references to Atlantis were lost, along with another millionplus volumes, when the institution was burned by religious fanatics. In relocating to Rome, the map escaped that destruction.

Athanasius Kircher's map of Atlantis. The map is oriented with south at the top.

Similar to modern conclusions forced by current understanding of geology in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Kircher’s map depicts Atlantis, not as a continent, but an island about the size of Spain and France combined. It shows a large, centrally located volcano, most likely meant to represent Mount Atlas, together with six major rivers, something Plato does not mention. Kritias describes large rivers on the island of Atlantis, but does not indicate how many.

Although the map vanished after Kircher’s death in 1680, it was the only known representation of Atlantis to have survived the Ancient World. Thanks to his research and book, it survives today in a close copy. Kircher was the first to publish a map of Atlantis, probably the most accurate of its kind to date. Curiously, it is depicted upside down, contrary to maps in both his day and ours. Yet, this apparent anomaly is proof of the map’s authenticity, because Egyptian mapmakers, even as late as Ptolemaic times, designed their maps with the Upper Nile Valley located in the south (“Upper” refers to its higher elevation) at the top, because the river’s headwaters are located in the Sudan.

Sources:
Atlantis Encyclopedia by Frank Joseph;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Athanasius_Kircher

Pic Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Athanasius_Kircher%27s_Atlantis.gif
04:44 | 0 komentar

Winged Cat Sightings

In 2008 a cat sprouted a pair of fur-covered wings on his back during a hot-weather spell in Sichuan province, China. The cat owner said, “At first they were just two bumps, but they started to grow quickly and after a month there were two wings.” Winged cats do seem to exist, but what are they? Based on reports, out of about 138 sightings of winged cats, over 30 of them have been scientifically documented. Genetic experts claim there is nothing angelic or magical about the condition, which doesn't hinder the cat's quality of life. They say the wings can form through poor grooming, a genetic defect or a hereditary skin condition.

Here are several sightings of winged cat throughout the world:

In India in the 1860s, Alexander Gibson shot a Winged cat whose dried skin was exhibited at a meeting of the Bombay Asiatic Society.

In 1894 as reported in the Inde­pendent Press, a winged cat was being displayed to those who paid two pen­nies. David Badcock, who owned the Ship Inn in Cambridge, England, also took the cat to nearby villages.

In 1899, Strand Magazine carried a photograph of a cat belonging to a woman in Wiveliscombe, Somerset, England, that had two furcovered growths coming out of its back. They flapped about whenever the cat moved.

In 1934 Mrs. Hughes Griffiths, of Oxford, England, found a winged black and white cat in her stables. The Oxford Zoo soon ar­rived on scene, captured the cat with a net, and took it back to the zoo. The cat had six-inch wings protrud­ing from its back.

Winged cat that lived in a builder’s yard in Trafford Park, Manchester, England.

In 1936 On a farm near Port­patrick, Wigtownshire, Scotland, a winged cat was found that had white hair and wings on its back. As the cat would run about, the wings flapped up and down.

In June 1949, a cat with a wingspan of 23 inches was shot and killed in northern Sweden after it rushed at a child.

In 1950s Madrid newspapers reported that one resident’s grey Angora cat had grown a pair of large, fluffy wings.

In May 1959, 15-year-old Doug­las Shelton captured a cat while he was hunting near Pinesville, West Virginia. The cat was not feral but acted friendly. And . . . it had wings! The only time the cat got angry was when the wings were pulled.

On June 24, 1966, Jean-Jacque Revers shot a cat with a wingspan of 14 inches that was attacking other animals near Alfred, Ontario. It was said to be able to make gliding jumps of 50–60 feet with wings extended. A veterinarian determined that the wings were long growths of thick, matted, black fur. An autopsy confirmed that it had been rabid.

In 2004 near Kursk, Central Russia, the local newspaper, Komso­molskaya Pravda, resident Nadezhda Medvedeva found a rather strange cat on her property. The cat was a ginger Tomcat, twice as large as a normal cat, and the cat had wings.

In 2008 according to the Huashang newspaper, in the Sichuan province, in China a one-year-old Tomcat grew wings after being sexually harassed by other cats.

During the early 1990s, British zoologist and cryptozoologist Dr Karl Shuker, who has a longstanding interest in the winged cat phenomenon, became the first person to make the link between winged cat reports in the popular media and reports of FCA in the veterinary literature. According to Shuker, domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus) with a rare condition have abnormally loose skin that stretches easily along the shoulders or back known as feline cutaneous asthenia (FCA). This can result in the creation of furry outgrowths like wings. Although the first cases of winged cats were reported in the 1800s, FCA was not discovered until the 1970s.

Sources :
Mysterious Creatures: “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart;
Paranormal Underground Magazine Vol. 3, Issue 10: “Do Winged Cats Exist? Mutants, Cryptids, Hoaxes, or Real?” by Jill Stefko, Ph.D.;
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1049610/Ready-Tiddles-Meet-cats-sprouted-wings.html;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winged_cat

Pic Source:
Mysterious Creatures: “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart page 590
05:39 | 2 komentar

Cuba's Sunken City

On December 6, 2001 a Canadian exploration company announced they had made a startling discovery off the west coast of Cuba and within 75 miles of the Yucatan. Using side-scan sonar equipment they identified a large underwater plateau “with clear images of symmetrically organized stone structures that looked like an urban development partly covered by sand,” the researchers told reporters. Published reports from Havana quoted Russian-born Canadian Paulina Zelitsky and her associates with the British Columbia- based Advanced Digital Communications (ADC) that new explorations with a miniature submarine have reaffirmed the existence of large stone structures apparently created by an unknown civilization thousands of years ago.


Zelitsky and her company first gained widespread attention several years ago with discovery of the sunken U.S. battleship Maine at 3700 feet near Havana harbor. The curiosity of the world was again captured in Spring of 2001 when the group reported finding an underwater city in the depths of the Caribbean. The “lost city” is submerged under 2,100 feet of water off the Guanahacabibes Peninsula on the Caribbean island’s western tip. It is the team estimated that the mysterious structures were built at least 6,000 years ago. This would make the site the oldest urban center in the world.

The Research Vessel "Ulises"

According to Reuters, on July 2001 ADC and its Cuban partners, operating from their research ship “Ulises”, deployed a remotely operated underwater vehicle. A robot called a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) was sent down to film the structures that lay over a 7.7 square mile area. The images produced by the ROV at that time were cited in December as revealing huge smooth granite-like blocks in “perpendicular and circular formations, some in pyramid shapes.” According to researchers most of the blocks, measuring from 6.5 to 16 feet in length, were exposed and stacked one on top of the other. Some were covered in a fine white sand found throughout the area. In the previous report the area had been described as looking like an urban development with the shapes resembled pyramids, roads, bridges and buildings from above.

Who built this ancient city?
In Paulina's opinion the complex belongs to 'the pre-classic period' of Central American history, and was populated by 'an advanced civilization similar to the early Teotihuacán culture of Yucatán'.

In his report on the formations, a geologist and director of research at Cuba's Natural History Museum, Manuel Iturralde noted that conclusive proof of man-made structures on the site could reinforce some oral traditions of the Maya and native Yucatan. These people still retell ancient stories of an island inhabited by their ancestors that vanished beneath the waves similar with the legendary lost continent of Atlantis.

Andrew Collins the author of "Gateway to Atlantis" proposed that the mechanism behind Atlantis' destruction was a comet impact which devastated the eastern Atlantic coast of America, causing literally 500,000 elliptical craters, known today as the Carolina Bays, sometime around 8500 BC (+/- 500 years). Fragments of the comet falling in the Western Atlantic basin, north of the Bahamas, would have created tsunami tidal-waves perhaps hundreds of metres high. These would have drowned, temporarily at least, large parts of the Bahamas and Caribbean, as well as many low-lying regions of the eastern United States.

Myths and legends told by the indigenous peoples of the Bahaman and Caribbean archipelagos, when the Spanish first reached the New World, spoke of just such a cataclysm. They said that the waters suddenly rushed in and drowned the great landmass, breaking it up into the individual islands seen today. Yet in the thousands of years which it took for the ice fields to melt in full, the sea-level rose only 300 metres (some estimates place it as much as 400 metres). “If the 'city' does lie in 600-700 metres of water, we will need to propose a suitable geological mechanism in order to justify its submergence to this depth post 9000 BC. Either that, or we will have to define a geological time-frame in which the land plateau, with its volcano, fault lines and river was above sea-level,” said Andrew.

While no one knows how to place the Cuba discovery within a familiar geological context, it seems clear that, the site is indeed artificial, its age is more likely to comport with Plato’s dates for the sinking of Atlantis, 9500 BC, than with any orthodox geology. If so, the find could be the most important of our time.

Sources:
Atlantis Rising Magazine vol. 32;
http://www.andrewcollins.com/page/articles/lostcity.htm;
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1697038.stm;
http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/05/0528_020528_sunkencities.html

Pic Source:
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1697038.stm;
Atlantis Rising Magazine vol. 32 page 10
05:03 | 0 komentar

The Franklin's Expedition

Sir John Franklin set off in charge of a British Navy expedition in 1845 to chart the North American Arctic and the route of the fabled Northwest Passage. In July of that year the two ships of the expedition were seen by whalers in Baffin Bay, at the gateway to the Northwest Passage. After that they were never seen by Europeans again. In the years that followed, the fate of Franklin’s expedition became one of the great mass-media stories of its day, with a rapt public breathlessly following every new development and a stream of search expeditions flooding the Arctic in search of the missing men and ships. At least 40 expeditions have been launched over the 160 years since Franklin disappeared.

Sir John Franklin
Franklin’s expedition was conceived as part of a programme of journeys of exploration undertaken by the Royal Navy, partly as a means of occupying their men and officers during peacetime and partly as a reflection of Victorian hubris, which saw the British Empire attempting to project the might of its technology, derring-do and pure British spunk to the farthest recesses of the globe. In particular, Franklin’s expedition was part of an ongoing quest to open up the Northwest Passage, the fabled route between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans across the top of the North American continent, which, it was hoped, would dramatically reduce transit times between Europe and the Far East by obviating the need to navigate the Cape of Good Hope (at the southern tip of Africa) or Cape Horn (at the southern tip of South America). Even today, with the Suez and Panama canals, the Northwest Passage would be the preferred route for much of the world’s maritime traffic.

The two ships were named Erebus and Terror, and, with a combined crew of 129, they sailed on 19 May 1845. The hulls of the ships were strengthened and armoured and they were fitted with central heating, screw propulsion and other cutting edge technology. In preparation for a long trip, the ships were supplied with everything from an extensive library and personalised tableware for the officers to three years of supplies, including quantities of tinned food (at this time still something of an untried novelty).

On July 26 they encountered the two whalers in Baffin Bay, and then sailed into the channels and straits of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. It was later discovered that they spent the winter of 1845–46 camped on Beechey Island, and were then able to make it as far as the north-western tip of King William Island, which is just off the Canadian mainland in what is now the Nunavut Territory. But the weather was against them and by September 1846 they were again trapped by sea ice in a gelid grip that would not relent for almost two years. What followed was only pieced together from the clues and rumours brought back by the search expeditions.

The first search party set off in 1848 and searches involving teams from Canada, the UK, and the US have continued ever since. When two years had gone by without word from the Franklin expedition, the Navy and the government launched the first of a series of what were, initially, rescue missions, but later were sent simply to solve the mystery of the utter disappearance of the two ships and 129 men. Despite mapping much of the convoluted coastline of the region, the first 14 expeditions discovered only one trace of the Franklin party – their overwinter camp on Beechey Island, about a third of the way into the Northwest Passage, together with the graves of three crew members who had died of tuberculosis.

Not until 1854 did the first clues to the expedition’s fate become clear. Dr John Rae, a surveyor for the Hudson’s Bay Company, spoke to the Inuit, who reported encounters near King William Island four years previously, between Inuit and a party of 40 white men who were in a desperate state. There was no translator and the white men could only signal their intention to head south. Suffering a time of famine themselves, the Inuit were not able to offer any help and the two groups went their separate ways. Later the bodies of another group of white men were found by the Inuit near the mouth of a large river,with signs that they had been reduced to cannibalism.When Rae let it be known he was offering a reward for any material evidence to back up these tales he was able to obtain many artifacts that were obviously from the ships and crew, which the Inuit had salvaged.

Lady Jane Franklin (Franklin's wife), raised enough money to finance a new expedition to follow up this new information from Rae and in 1859, Leopold McClintock in command of the Fox had managed to reach King William Island. The McClintock expedition uncovered the evidence that, for the Victorian public, appeared to solve the mystery. On King William Island they found a cairn containing a brief note. Scribbled on a standard-issue Navy form, it had two parts:

  • The first, dated 28 May 1847, recorded the ships’ movements from 1845, including the winter camp at Beechey Island, their current location and some subsequent land explorations, and insisted, ‘ALL WELL’.
  • The second part, dated 25 April 1848, was far grimmer. It recorded that the two ships had been abandoned after again ‘having been beset’ with ice, that nine officers and 15 other men had died, including Franklin himself, who had passed away on 11 June 1847, and that the surviving men were now striking out for Back’s Fish River to the south (presumably with the intention of making their way up the river to outposts of the Hudson’s Bay Company).

Investigating further, McClintock came across a trail of death – corpses, scattered equipment and one of the ship’s boats, converted into a sled but then abandoned. It was laden with a bizarre range of equipment, including silver teaspoons, carpet slippers, a copy of the novel The Vicar of Wakefield, and unopened tins of meat.

In 1981, a team of scientists led by Owen Beattie, a professor of anthropology at the University of Alberta, began a series of scientific studies of the graves, bodies, and other physical evidence left by Franklin crew members on Beechey Island and King William Island. They concluded that the crew members whose graves had been found on Beechey Island most likely died of pneumonia and perhaps tuberculosis and that lead poisoning may have worsened their health, owing to badly soldered cans held in the ships' food stores.

However, it was later suggested that the source of this lead may not have been tinned food, but the distilled water systems fitted to the expedition’s ships. Cut marks on human bones found on King William Island were seen as signs of cannibalism. The combined evidence of all studies suggested that hypothermia, starvation, lead poisoning and disease including scurvy, along with general exposure to a hostile environment whilst lacking adequate clothing and nutrition, killed everyone on the expedition in the years following its last sighting by Europeans in 1845.

The expedition to the Utjulik area, in 2004, concluded that only direct sonar scanning of the seabed could identify the possible wreck, and only a small percentage of the target areas identified from the Inuit accounts has yet been imaged in this time-consuming and labour-intensive fashion.

Last week (BBC, September 2011), representatives from Parks Canada announced the results from their search this summer, which proved unsuccessful. "The extraordinary thing is that despite all this effort, after 160 years and by thousands of people, we still don't know where the ships are, and what happened on the expedition, or what happened to most of the men," says William Battersby, who wrote the biography of James Fitzjames, the captain of the Erebus.

The expedition has become one of the most important episodes in Canadian and Arctic history, with the allure of a historical mystery and the drama of personal tragedy. The ships themselves would have genuine archaeological significance, as there are no extant bomb ships, let alone ones with special adaptations representing the height of mid-19th-century technology. As for the missing records, they are the Holy Grail of Franklin enthusiasts. Indeed, according to Franklin-scholar Russell Potter, ‘Of all the dreamed-for documents in all the unsolved mysteries of modern times, none matches the drawing power of these elusive Franklin papers.’ It is hoped that they may be aboard the sunken ships, so that finding one will lead to the other.

To the Victorians the story now seemed relatively clear and solved. Trapped by unrelenting ice and with provisions running low and men dying, the crew had bravely decided to try their chances on land. However, many mysteries remained. Why had the men abandoned their ships to attempt the suicidal overland trip via Back’s Fish River, which would have meant a 1,200-kilometre (746-mile) trek over falls and rapids? Why had they filled their makeshift sled with useless and heavy equipment?

The community of Franklin scholars continues to hope that the wreck of the Erebus or Terror will be located and explored, perhaps to reveal one of the expedition logs that could finally explain the full story of the various abandonments, reoccupations, desperate land treks and tragic deaths. Perhaps it would even reveal where Franklin himself was buried. But finding it will not be easy.

Sources:
Lost Histories: “Exploring the World’s Most Famous Mysteries” by Joel Levy;
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/magazine-14847091;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_expedition

Pic Source:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:John_Franklin.jpg
05:41 | 1 komentar

The Disappearance of William Morgan

On the evening of September 12, 1826, William Morgan (1774–1826?) disappeared outside the city jail in Canandaigua, New York State, three months before the publication of his book revealing the secrets of the first three degrees of Freemasonry. Witnesses heard Morgan shout “Murder!” as he was forced into a carriage by four men. The carriage drove off into the night, and Morgan was never seen again. Reports of Morgan’s disappearance raised questions about the extent of Masonic involvement in the incident and launched one of the great conspiracy panics in American history and created a national anti-Masonic movement.

Morgan had a checkered past and a dubious reputation. Born in Virginia in 1774, he worked as a stonemason, brewer, merchant, farmer, and clerk, and contemporary accounts describe him as a quarrelsome alcoholic, in and out of jail for unpaid debts. In the early 1820s, he moved from Ontario, Canada, to upstate New York, settling in Rochester and then in Batavia. At some point in his life he had either become a Mason or learned enough from published exposures of Masonic ritual to pass as a Mason. No record of his initiation into the three degrees of Craft Masonry survives, though he certainly attended Masonic lodges in upstate New York in the early 1820s.

Soon afterward, he sought admission to a Masonic lodge in nearby LeRoy, and received the Royal Arch degree in 1825. Morgan was initiated into the lodge, but when he supported the formation of a new lodge in Batavia, other members of the proposed lodge took his name off the petition, thus denying his membership. Morgan, infuriated, quit the Batavia lodge and decided to avenge himself on Masonry by writing a book that revealed its secrets. The hope of making money may also have played a significant part in his plans.

In March 1826 Morgan retaliated by entering into a contract with local printer David C. Miller and two investors to publish an exposé of the “secrets” of Freemasonry. When word got out about his plan, local Masons tried to prevent the book’s publication. Miller, Morgan, and other backers of the project were harassed and threatened, but went forward with the project.

On 10 September 1826, some three weeks after Morgan had received a copyright for his book, Illustrations of Masonry, Miller’s print shop was set on fire in an apparent attempt to stop the book’s publication. The same day, a member of the Canandaigua Masonic lodge obtained a warrant for Morgan’s arrest on charges of petty theft. The next evening he was released for lack of evidence, but was immediately rearrested on debt charges and imprisoned in the Canandaigua jail.

The following night, Morgan was abducted from the jail and forced into a carriage by four men; he was never seen again. The jailer’s wife heard a shrill whistle, went to the window, and witnessed Morgan struggling and shouting as he was forced into a carriage and taken away. Exactly what happened to Morgan after that remains a mystery. He was apparently held prisoner for several days at the abandoned Fort Niagara, and his captors tried to convince him to accept a large cash sum, withdraw the book, and emigrate to Canada. Rumors for years thereafter claimed that he had been seen in Canada, or British Honduras, or the Turkish city of Smyrna; one account claimed that he had run away to the West and become an Indian chief, another that he had turned pirate and been hanged in Cuba.

The most popular accounts of a conspiracy, which was said to involve nearly seventy Masonic brethren, held that Morgan had initially been taken to Canada, where plans to pay him in exchange for staying out of the United States had fallen through. After a few days, according to these charges, he was bound with weights and thrown into the Niagara River just below the falls. When a decomposed male corpse was found near Lake Ontario more than a year after Morgan’s disappearance, the corpse was initially identified and buried as Morgan, though many charged that the local coroner, hoping to please the anti-Masonic movement, had deliberately ignored signs that called its identity into question. The body was later exhumed and identified as one Timothy Munroe. Morgan’s body was never recovered.

The Morgan affair also fed public alarm about the amount of influence the Freemasons had on government. Half of all officials in the county where Morgan disappeared, and as many as two-thirds of officeholders across New York State, including the governor DeWitt Clinton, belonged to Masonic lodges.

Morgan’s book, Illustrations of Masonry, nonetheless appeared in December 1826 (other source said it was released in 1827) was an instant bestseller, and filled with blood-curdling descriptions of supposed Masonic rituals and vengeance oaths, which prompted an investigation of the order by New York State legislators in 1829. By that time the governor of New York, DeWitt Clinton, had offered rewards of $300 (a large sum by early nineteenth-century standards) for information leading to the arrest of Morgan’s abductors, and a grand jury in Canandaigua had indicted four Masons for conspiracy to kidnap. Three of them pled guilty but claimed they had no idea where Morgan was. Conspiracy to kidnap was then a misdemeanor in New York, and the defendants served jail terms of between two years and three months. The resulting investigation went on for five years; a total of 54 Masons were indicted and thirty-nine were tried, but only 10 were convicted of crimes, and no definitive resolution of the case was found, while 13 other Masons fled the state to avoid trial.

The third and last special counsel, who had the remarkable name of Victory Birdseye, finished his inquiry in 1831. Years later, a Mason named Henry Vance confessed on his deathbed that he and two other lodge members had murdered Morgan and dumped his body in the Niagara River. However none of these provided any conclusive evidence. Whatever the facts of the matter, charges of a Masonic “cover-up” in the Morgan affair fueled the first national mass anti-Masonic movement, which spawned dozens of newspapers and other publications and created a political party.

Sources:
Conspiracy Theories in American History: “An Encyclopedia” Vol.1 edited by Peter Knight;
The Element Encyclopedia of Secret Societies: “The Ultimate A-Z of Ancient Mysteries, Lost Civilizations and Forgotten Wisdom” by John Michael Greer;
The Encyclopedia of Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories by Michael Newton

Pic Source:
The Encyclopedia of Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories by Michael Newton page 133
05:49 | 1 komentar

Abracadabra

Abracadabra is one of the magic words relating to rituals, talismans and Pentacles. The word have a symbolic meaning, either in themselves or in the way they are used, which is expressed either phonetically or, more frequently, graphically. This magic word was in frequent use during the Middle Ages as a magic formula and historically was believed to have healing powers when inscribed on an amulet. It is derived from the Hebrew phrase abreq ad hâbra, meaning ‘hurl your thunderbolt even unto death’. The first known mention of the word was in the second century AD in a book called Liber Medicinalis (sometimes known as De Medicina Praecepta Saluberrima) by Quintus Serenus Sammonicus, physician to the Roman emperor Caracalla, who prescribed that malaria sufferers wear an amulet containing the word written in the form of a triangle:

The mystical word “Abracadabra,” was also used in medieval Europe as a chant to reduce fever. Each time the word was spoken in the chant, a letter was dropped. As the chant reduced, the fever was dispelled. Such talismans were especially popular during the Great Plague that swept through London during the mid-1660s.

By applying such magic words as “abracadabra,” Abramelin magicians claim they can gain the love of anyone they desire, discover hidden treasures, become invisible, invoke spirits to appear, fly through the air and travel great distances in a matter of minutes, and animate corpses to create zombies to serve them. Abramelin magicians believe they can heal illnesses or cause diseases, bring about peace or war, create prosperity or poverty. The essence of Abramelin magick can be found in The Sacred Magic of Abramelin the Mage, which was translated by MacGregor Mathers from a manuscript written in French in the eighteenth century. The work purports to be much older, however. It was dated 1458 and claims to be translated originally from Hebrew.

This magic word has also been related to the Abracax (Abraxas, Abrasax) of the Gnostics. In Persian mythology Abracax denotes the Supreme Being and presides over 365 impersonated virtues, one of which is supposed to prevail on each day of the year. In the second century the word was employed by the Basilidians for the deity; it was also the principle of the Gnostic hierarchy.

It is also in reality one of the names of the sun-god, Mithras. The origin of the cult of Mithras dates from the time that the Hindus and Persians still formed one people, for the god Mithras occurs in the religion and the sacred books of both races, i.e. in the Vedas and in the Avesta.

In the "Harry Potter" novel series, Abracadabra is modified by the author (J.K. Rowling) as "Avada Kedavra" which is known as the Killing Curse.

Source:
A Dictionary of Symbols by J.E. Cirlot;
The Gale Encyclopedia of the Unusual and Unexplained Vol.2 by Brad Steiger and Sherry Hansen Steiger;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abracadabra;
http://www.infoplease.com/dictionary/brewers/abracax.html#ixzz1X3cOVkjT;
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/10402a.htm

Pic Source:
A Dictionary of Symbols by J.E. Cirlot page 2
06:42 | 0 komentar

The Mysterious Mummies of Cladh Hallan

In 2001 an archaeological excavations at Cladh Hallan on the island of South Uist have uncovered the remains of what are believed to be a mummified Bronze Age bodies, buried under the floor of a prehistoric house. The skeletons looked very unusual, like Peruvian mummies. DNA tests on British prehistoric mummies revealed they were made of body parts from several different people, arranged to look like one person. And after being radiocarbon dated, all were found to have died between 300 and 500 years before the houses were built, meaning they had been kept above ground for some time by their descendants. The four bodies discovered on South Uist, in Scotland's Outer Hebrides were the first evidence of deliberate mummification carried out in ancient times ever found in Britain - and is without doubt one of the most important archaeological discoveries made in recent years.

The house in which the mummy skeletons were buried was part of a unique Bronze Age complex (c. 1100-200 BC), which is as mysterious as the preserved corpses that were buried there. The prehistoric settlement's main feature is a row of four or more roundhouses, all built as a single structure with party walls.

The excavation team led by Dr. Mike parker Pearson of Sheffield University first uncovered the remains of two adults within the north house, then in the central house they found the burial of a three-month-old-child child and two dogs, and in the southern house the burial of one child. Four of these burials, the two adults (a female in her 40s and a male) in the north house and the children in the central and southern houses, were placed in the ground before the first floors of peaty sand were laid down. It is these burials, construed as pre-construction offerings, which also gave evidence for the prior mummification and curation of the bodies.

The adult skeletons were tightly folded, in the same way that Peruvian mummies were bundled up, hands and knees tucked tightly under the chin. The female skeleton had a full set of teeth except for her two upper lateral incisors which had been removed from her jaw and placed in her hands. The left tooth was placed in her left hand by her head and the right tooth was in her right hand below her knee. Absence of trauma on the two teeth or their sockets suggests that they were removed at some time after death.

Through carbon dating, the adult bodies; one individual (a male) had died in around 1,600 BC - but had been buried a full six centuries later, in around 1,000 BC. What is more, a second individual (a female) had died in around 1,300 BC - and had to wait 300 years before being interred. The archaeologists thought this strange. They had never encountered anything like it before. If the skeletons had been left unburied for 600 or 300 years they would have ended up as just a pile of bones. It seemed that perhaps in some way the sinews and skin had been deliberately preserved, to permanently hold the skeletons together.

According to recent DNA tests on the remains carried out by the University of Manchester, show that the "female burial", previously identified as such because of the pelvis of the skeleton, was in fact a composite. The male skeleton was also composed of bones from three different individuals--the post-cranial skeleton belonged to one man, the head and cervical vertebrae to another and the mandible came from a third. There is no evidence that later material was inserted into an earlier grave; on excavation all skeletal elements appeared in fact to be articulated. Prof Parker Pearson said, "These could be kinship components, they are putting lineages together, the mixing up of different people's body parts seems to be a deliberate act."

Further tests showed that the bones had become demineralised, a process caused by placing a body in an acidic environment like a peat bog. The test suggested very strongly that the corpses had not been allowed to decompose for long. It indicated that the process of decomposition had been halted at an early stage - presumably when the body was placed in the peat bog, or perhaps if it had been eviscerated prior to immersion in the bog. The fact that these ancient remains were preserved with their skeletons intact shows that Bronze Age Britons knew exactly how long to leave their dead suspended in the peat bog's murky depths - long enough to preserve them well enough to survive above ground for hundreds of years but not so long that they lost form.

Sources:
http://archaeology.about.com/od/mummies/a/parkerpearson.htm;
http://www.bbc.co.uk/pressoffice/pressreleases/stories/2003/03_march/17/mummies.shtml;
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-14575729;
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/archaeology/mummies_cladhhallan_01.shtml;
http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2028873/Britains-oldest-mummies-individuals-gruesome-jigsaw-human-body-parts.html;
http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-137718808.html

Pic Source:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/ancient/archaeology/images/mummies_cladh_skeleton.jpg
16:33 | 0 komentar

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