Perpetual Motion Machine

Ever since the invention of the wheel, man has been searching for unlimited energy. The term perpetual motion more commonly refers to any device or system that perpetually (indefinitely) produces more energy than it consumes, resulting in a net output of energy for indefinite time. The law of conservation of energy, which states that energy cannot be created or destroyed, implies that such a perpetual motion machine cannot exist. The laws of physics tell modern scientists that perpetual motion is an impossibility, but engineers from previous times were not governed by such rules. Between 1607 and 1903 the British Patent Office received over 600 applications for perpetual motion inventions. However, only one man has dared to suggest he really did conquer the problem. That man was Johann Ernst Elias Bessler (1680 – November 30, 1745), an entrepreneur who demonstrated a series of devices he claimed exhibited perpetual motion.

The earliest references to perpetual motion machines, by an Indian mathematician-astronomer, Bhāskara II, date back to 1150. He described a wheel that he claimed would run forever. In 1235 Villard de Honnecourt described, in a 33 page manuscript, a perpetual motion machine of the first kind. His idea was based on the changing torque of a series of weights attached with hinges to the rim of a wheel. While ascending they would hang close to the wheel and have little torque, but they would topple after reaching the top and drag the wheel down on descent due to their greater torque during the swing. His device spawned a variety of imitators that continued to refine the basic design. But, the most controversial was Orffyreus wheel.

Orrfyreus Wheel, designed by Johann Bessler

Johann Ernst Elias Bessler was born in 1680 in Zittau in Saxony. In 1712 he appeared in the town of Gera with a wheel which he claimed was self-moving. With a little push to start, the three-feet-wide, fourinch- thick wheel worked itself up to a regular speed. It could lift a weighted bag and, it was claimed, would continue turning forever. But Bessler seemed to attract many enemies, and very little notice was taken of his invention.

In 1716, the Landgrave of Hesse-Cassel became his patron, and it was at his home in 1717 that Bessler created his greatest wheel. Twelve feet wide and fourteen inches thick, it constantly revolved at 25 or 26 turns a minute. The wheel was examined by many of Johann Bessler's contemporaries, including Willem's-Gravesande and Gottfried Leibniz, who concluded that it was not a deception. On 12th November 1717 the wheel was locked and sealed in its room. Two weeks later the room was reopened and the wheel was still turning at a constant 25 rpm. They sealed it away for a further six weeks, and once more, when viewed, it was revolving at 25 rpm.

The door was resealed until 4 January 1718, whereupon it was opened and the wheel was still revolving at twenty-five revolutions per minute. In a letter to Sir Isaac Newton, Willem's-Gravesande described the device as a hollow wheel with framed wood cross pieces, covered by canvas to prevent the mechanism from being seen. Willem's-Gravesande reported that, when pushed, the wheel took two or three revolutions to reach a maximum speed of around 25 revolutions per minute.

Whilst various institutions, including the Royal Society, were debating whether to raise funds to purchase "Orffyreus' Wheel" (for which he demanded twenty thousand pounds), William 's-Gravesande examined the axle of the wheel, concluding that he could see no way in which the wheel could be a fake. Bessler asked for £20,000 to reveal the secrets of his wheel, but nobody seemed ready to provide such a huge amount of money. Bessler smashed the wheel, believing Willem's-Gravesande was hoping to discover the secret of the wheel without paying for it, and declared that the curiosity of the professor had provoked him. At the same time, his enemies were casting doubts on his invention, but many learned and official figures who studied the wheels confirmed there was no trickery involved.

Bessler and his machine vanished into obscurity. It is known that he was rebuilding his machine in 1727 and that Willem's-Gravesande had agreed to examine it again, but it is not known whether it was ever tested. Bessler died in 1745, aged sixty-five, when he fell to his death from a four-and-a-half-story windmill he was constructing in Fürstenburg. taking his secret to his grave.

It is said that he left certain clues which, when deciphered, will demonstrate how his amazing machine worked. But until then perpetual motion will have to remain, at least in scientific eyes, a practical impossibility.

Sources :
100 Most Strangest Mysteries by Matt Lamy;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johann_Bessler;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perpetual_motion

Pics sources :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Johann_Bessler.gif;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:OrffyreusWheel.png
06:03 | 2 komentar

Almas Sightings

The Almas in Mongolian (Altaic) means “wild man,” though possibly derived from ala (“to kill”) + mal (“animals”). The word is found in many southern Mongolian place-names. Unlike the Sasquatch or the Yeti from the descriptions available which seems large and very apelike, the Almas seems smaller and more human. The creature is not currently recognized or cataloged by science. Reports of the Almas are concentrated in the Caucasus and Pamir Mountains of central Asia, and the Altai Mountains of southern Mongolia. Similar reports come from Siberia and the far northeast parts of the Russian republic. Early in the fifteenth century, Bavarian soldier Johannes Schiltenberger was captured by Turks at the Battle of Nikopol, Bulgaria, who placed him in the retinue of a Mongol prince named Egidi.

After returning to Europe in 1427, Schiltenberger wrote about his experiences, which included wildmen. While in the Tian Shan Mountains, he became the first Westerner to se
e an Almas:
"In the mountains themselves live wild people, who have nothing in common with other human beings. A pelt covers the entire body of these creatures. Only the hands and face are free of hair. They run around in the hills like animals and eat foliage and grass and whatever else they can find."

Sometime in the late nineteenth century, a caravan was resting in the southern part of the Mongolian province of Övörhangay on the way to Hohhot, Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China, one of the men in the party went to collect the camels that had been set loose to graze. When he did not return, the others went off into the saxaul thickets to look for him. At the entrance to a cave, they found evidence of a struggle and figured an Almas had abducted him. One of the elders suggested they pick him up on the way back from Hohhot, which they did, waiting until the creature emerged from the cave at sundown and shooting it. The rescued man seemed to be insane and died two months afterward.

In April 1906, Soviet scholar Badzar Baradiin reportedly had a brief encounter with an Almas while he was traveling in the Gobi Desert near Badain Jaran, Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, China. However, Michael Heaney considers this story a fiction, based on the fact that there is no mention of the incident in Baradiin’s meticulous diary of the trip; moreover, the actual route was 150 miles east of where the event supposedly took place.

A seven-year-old Almas female was accidentally killed in the Gobi when she set off a crossbow attached to an animal snare. Many people in the sparsely populated area are said to have seen the body, but the locals begged investigators not to talk about it, since crossbow snares were illegal.

The Pamir mountains, lying in a remote region where the borders of Tadzhikistan, China, Kashmir, and Afghanistan meet, have been the scene of many Almas sightings. In 1925, Mikhail Stephanovitch Topilski, a major-general in the Soviet army, led his unit in an assault on an anti-Soviet guerilla force hiding in a cave in the Pamirs. One of the surviving guerillas said that while in the cave he and his comrades were attacked by several apelike creatures. Topilski ordered the rubble of the cave searched, and the body of one such creature was found. Topilski reported:
"At first glance I thought the body was that of an ape. It was covered with hair all over. But I knew there were no apes in the Pamirs. Also, the body itself looked very much like that of a man. We tried pulling the hair, to see if it was just a hide used for disguise, but found that it was the creature's own natural hair. We turned the body over several times on its back and its front, and measured it. Our doctor made a long and thorough inspection of the body, and it was clear that it was not a human being."

In 1927, travelers left a caravan unattended while they went to look for a camel that had dropped back. Upon their return at daybreak, they found several Almas warming themselves by the dying campfire. The creatures had eaten some dried dates and sweets but had left the jars of wine untouched.

A monk named Dambayorin was traveling across the Gobi in 1930 when he saw a naked child in the distance. When he got closer, he saw it was covered with red hair, realized it was an Almas, and fled in terror.

An entire skin of an Almas is said to have hung in the temple of the monastery at Baruun Hural, Mongolia, in 1937. It had humanlike legs and arms and long hair hanging from its head. The Almas had been killed in the Gobi by the hunter Mangal Durekchi and given to the lamas. A Mongolian pharmacist named Nagmit was in the mountains with two Kazakhs when they came upon an Almas. They shouted at it, offering it food and clothing, but it kept its distance. When they shot at it, intentionally missing, the creature merely seemed curious, then departed.

In 1957, Alexander G. Pronin, a hydrologist at the Geographical Research Institute of Leningrad University, participated in an expedition to the Pamirs, for the purpose of mapping glaciers. On August 2, 1957, while his team was investigating the Fedchenko glacier, Pronin hiked into the valley of the Balyandkiik River. Pronin stated:
"At noon I noticed a figure standing on a rocky cliff about 500 yards above me and the same distance away. My first reaction was surprise, since this area was known to be uninhabited, and second was that the creature was not human. It resembled a man but was very stooped. As i watched the stocky figure move across the snow, keeping its feet wide apart, and its forearms were longer than a human's and it was covered with reddish-grey hair."

Pronin saw the creature again three days later, walking upright. Since this incident, there have been numerous wildman sightings in the Pamirs, and members of various expeditions.

In 1963, Ivan Ivlov, a Russian pediatrician, was traveling through the Altai mountains in the southern part of Mongolia. Ivlov saw several humanlike creatures standing on a mountain slope. They appeared to be a family group, composed of a male, female, and child. Ivlov observed the creatures through his binoculars from a distance of half a mile until they moved out of his field of vision. His Mongolian driver also saw them and said they were common in that area. After his encounter with the Almas family, Ivlov interviewed many Mongolian children, believing they would be more candid than adults. The children provided many additional reports about the Almas. For example, one child told Ivlov that while he and some other children were swimming in a stream, he saw a male Almas carry a child Almas across it.

In 1980, a worker at an experimental agricultural station, operated by the Mongolian Academy of Sciences at Bulgan, encountered the dead body of a wildman:
"I approached and saw a hairy corpse of a robust humanlike creature dried and half-buried by sand. . . . The dead thing was not a bear or ape and at the same time it was not a man like Mongol or Kazakh or Chinese and Russian."

Possible explanations suggested by Mark Hall and Loren Coleman, perhaps the Almas is a surviving Homo erectus, The nearest known fossils are the Zhoukoudian Peking man remains found north of Beijing in the 1920s. The browridge, flat nose, absent chin, and robust jaw match Almas descriptions. H. erectus used a primitive (Acheulean) toolkit of hand axes and other bifacial stone tools. The youngest level of erectus remains at Zhoukoudian date from about 300,000 years ago. Another theory is a surviving Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis), proposed by Myra Shackley. Neanderthal fossils are not known in Central Asia, though Shackley claims to have recovered, in Mongolia, Mousterian tools normally associated with them. Almas descriptions seem to indicate a more primitive morphology than known Neanderthal fossils, so Shackley has also theorized that they may represent a common ancestor to Neanderthals and modern humans.

Sources :
Hidden Histories of The Human Race by Michael Cremo;
Mysterious Creatures : “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Almas_%28cryptozoology%29

Pic source :
Mysterious Creatures : “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart page 12
05:23 | 0 komentar

Lost Civilization of Harappa

The Harappa citizen also known as the Harappan were literate, though no literature has survived and no one has yet been able to decipher the short inscriptions found mostly on their seals. They were also technologically advanced, with bathrooms and toilets in many houses, and citywide drainage systems. They were sailors and traders, whose crafts have since been found throughout Mesopotamia. Yet unlike the Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations, which lasted for millennia, the Harappa endured only about six hundred years. By 1900 BC, Harappa were abandoned. People continued to live in the surrounding areas, but there were no longer signs of luxury items or writing or urban life. The reasons for the civilization’s demise still debated among archaeologists. Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, northeast Pakistan, about 20 km (12 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River, some 5 km (3 mi) southeast of the site.

The site contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents—considered large for its time. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BC along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.

At Harappa ruins, archaeologists found evidence of an unknown Bronze Age civilization.

Indus Valley civilization (also known as Harappan culture) was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. Both Mohenjo-daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having "differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers." Although such similarities have given rise to arguments for the existence of a standardized system of urban layout and planning, such similarities are largely due to the presence of a semi-orthogonal type of civic layout, and a comparison of the layouts of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa shows that they are in fact, arranged in a quite dissimilar fashion.

The chert weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilization, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property and shipment of goods. Although copper and bronze were in use, iron was not yet employed.

Mortimer Wheeler, who excavated at both Mohenjo Daro and Harappa during the 1940s, believed the Harappan cities were destroyed by invaders from the north. At Mohenjo Daro, Wheeler found the skeletons of men, women, and children sprawled on the ground, some bearing the marks of axes or swords. These, Wheeler concluded, were the peace-loving victims of a more violent people. Maybe the same invaders also destroy Harappa cities.

Who were these invaders? Though there was no Indus text to tell of them, later Indian literature provided clues. Religious works known as the Vedas described the battles of people who called themselves Aryans. In the greatest of these, the Rig Veda, the Aryan war god Indra destroys ninety forts and “rends forts as age consumes a garment.”Among those conquered by the Aryans were the Dasas, a dark-skinned race that lived in fortified cities.

“It has in the past been supposed that [these forts] were mythical,” Wheeler wrote. “The recent excavation of Harappa may be thought to have changed the picture.Here we have a highly evolved civilization of essentially non-Aryan type . . . now known to have employed massive fortifications, and known also to have dominated the river system of northwestern India at a time not distant from the likely period of the earlier Aryan invasions of that region. . . . Its ultimate extinction is . . . likely to have been completed by deliberate and large-scale destruction. It may be no mere chance that at a Late Period of Mohenjo-daro men, women, and children appear to have been massacred there.” The evidence was, however, very circumstantial.

Other archaeologists, such as George Dales, noted that some of the apparent wounds on the Mohenjo Daro skeletons appeared to have been made weeks or months before the victims’ deaths. Moreover, the skeletons were not found together in the citadel, where you’d expect a last stand, but scattered about the city, and the positions in which they were found could just as easily have indicated a hasty burial as a massacre. It wasn’t even clear that they’d all died in the same time period.

The ‘massacre’ idea immediately ignited and has been used as a torch up to the present day by some historians, linguists, and archaeologists as visible, awful proof of the invasion of the subcontinent by Aryans. But what is the material evidence to substantiate the supposed invasion and massacre? Where are the burned fortresses, the arrowheads, weapons, pieces of armor, the smashed chariots and bodies of the invaders and defenders? Despite the extensive excavations at the largest Harappan sites, there is not a single bit of evidence that can be brought forth as unconditional proof of an armed conquest and destruction on the supposed scale of the Aryan invasion.

The Rig Veda evidence was also dubious. Nothing in the text could be tied to any particular location, and its descriptions of the forts don’t resemble Harappa or Mohenjo Daro. Many archaeologists believed that the purpose of the elevated areas of the cities was not defensive, as Wheeler assumed, but public or religious. At Mohenjo Daro, there was a Great Bath and a warehouse, neither of which had any military use. Nor were the walls of the city necessarily for defense; many believed they were used to buttress the elevated buildings. The forts described in the Rig Veda, if they existed at all, were as likely to have been in Iran or Central Asia as the Indus Valley.

Then there was the problem of dates. Most scholars think the Rig Veda was first written down sometime between 1500 BC and 1000 BC, hundreds of years after Harappa and Mohenjo Daro were abandoned. True, the Rig Veda first existed as an oral tradition, and it could have recalled events of a more distant past, but it was still a long stretch to tie its battles to the fall of the Indus cities.

If Aryan invaders didn’t destroy the Harappan cities, who—or what—was to blame? Some archaeologists thought disruption of the Harappan trade with Mesopotamia was a factor. After about 2000 BC, the number of Mesopotamian artifacts found in the Indus Valley declined, indicating a decline in trade. But none of these artifacts seemed essential to the cities’ survival, so the decline in trade was more likely to be an effect than a cause of the problem.

Another theory was that the Harappans wore out their environment, perhaps deforesting the region for the firewood that baked the bricks for their buildings. This, too, seemed unlikely: only a few hundred acres of forest would have been required to build Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. McIntosh speculated, the Harappans may also have been victims of their own extensive sanitation systems, if wastewater contaminated the drinking water and spread disease.

Many scientists blamed environmental changes beyond the Harappans’ control. H. J. Lambrick suggested that the Indus River shifted course, perhaps because of tectonic changes in the Himalayas, and Robert Raikes thought the river’s waters became dammed upstream from Mohenjo Daro. Gurdip Singh cited the changing salinity of the region’s lakes as evidence of declining rainfall. Others suggested the problem was too much water: deposits in and around Mohenjo Daro indicated the city experienced a number of substantial floods, though some archaeologists suspected the deposits might have been left by wind, not water.

Any of these factors would have caused stresses and strains, and some—such as a change in the course of the Indus River or a devastating flood—might very well have caused the Indus people to abandon even as important a city as Mohenjo Daro. But why didn’t they rebuild elsewhere? Why did they stop making painted pottery and stamp seals, why did they stop constructing drainage systems, why did they stop writing? Why did they give up on a civilization that had reached such heights? Until now, these questions still unanswered.

“The process of decline and collapse, as it appears in the archaeological record at key sites, unfolds in various ways,” wrote archaeologist Nayanjot Lahiri. “It is not one event but different kinds of events which are in need of elucidation here, and this may explain why various types of hypotheses have been offered as well as why one may consider more than one explanation to be plausible.”

Sources :
Mysteries in History : “From Prehistory to the Present” by Paul D. Aron;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa

Pics sources :
http://wondersofpakistan.files.wordpress.com/2009/01/indus-civilization-map.jpg;
http://www.incois.gov.in/Tutor/science+society/lectures/illustrations/lecture1/harappa.jpg
06:48 | 3 komentar

The Flannan Isles Mystery

The Flannan Isles (also known as the Seven Hunters), named for Saint Flannan, who lived a solitary existence there in the seventeenth century. The islands are a small island group in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland, approximately 32 kilometres (20 mi) west of the Isle of Lewis and have been devoid of permanent residents since the automation of the lighthouse in 1971. The Lighthouse there is one of the most isolated in Scotland and were the focal point of an eerie tale about the disappearance of three light keepers in December 1900 that has never been solved. The Flannan Isles comprise a group of cliffy rocks, of which Eilean Mor, about 500 yards long and perhaps 200 yards wide, is the largest. Because of their position these rocks increasingly became a hazard to coastal shipping, so a lighthouse was built on Eilean Mor, fitted with a light powerful enough to be seen 40 miles out to sea.

Designed by David Alan Stevenson, the 23 metres (75 ft) tower was constructed for the Northern Lighthouse Board (NLB) between 1895 and 1899 and is located near the highest point on Eilean Mòr. It was first lit on 7 December 1899. In 1925 it was one of the first Scottish lights to receive communications from the shore by wireless telegraphy. On 28 September 1971, it was automated. A reinforced concrete helipad was constructed at the same time to enable maintenance visits in heavy weather.

In 1900 there were two landing places, which had to be blasted out of the rock itself: one on the western edge of the island and the other on the eastern edge, with steps cut into the cliff and rope and tackle set up for hauling supplies to the top. The lighthouse was manned by a three man team, with a rotating fourth man spending time on shore, each man on duty for six weeks followed by two weeks ashore. Stores and mail were brought to the lighthouse every two weeks by the steamer Hesperus; also on board was the fourth man rotating back in from his shore leave.

On December 6, 1900, Joseph Moore left on the Hesperus for his spell ashore, leaving behind Donald McArthur, Thomas Marshall, and James Ducat. Moore would have been due back on December 20, but bad weather kept the steamer away, and it wasn’t until December 26 that Moore was able to make the trip. He was worried on two counts: first, the delay in the steamer’s return meant that the three men in the light had to go without their Christmas mail and provisions; and second, for the past few days the light itself had not been lit, always a matter of concern for mariners at sea and for the authorities ashore. The first hint of anything untoward on the Flannan Isles came on 15 December, 1900. The steamer Archtor on passage from Philadelphia to Leith passed the islands in poor weather and noted that the light was not operational.

A boat was launched and Joseph Moore, the relief keeper, was put ashore alone. When the Hesperus anchored off the eastern edge of the island and a boat put in for the landing stage, Moore had further cause for worry—there was no one there to meet them, which was unusual, as the fortnightly steamer was something of an event for the men in their otherwise solitary existence. He found the entrance gate to the compound and main door both closed, the beds unmade and the clock stopped.

Moore and three volunteer seamen were left to attend and inspected the lighthouse. It was empty. Nothing was out of place. As with the cabin on the Mary Celeste, the interior of the lighthouse was a model of orderliness. The machinery that drove the light, the lens, the lanterns and their wicks—all had been properly serviced. A set of oilskins was found, suggesting that one of the keepers had left the lighthouse without them, which was surprising considering the severity of the weather. The only sign of anything amiss in the lighthouse was an overturned chair by the kitchen table. Of the keepers there was no sign, either inside the lighthouse or anywhere on the island. The three men had simply vanished, without leaving behind any clue pointing to panic, disaster, or distress.

The men remaining on the island scoured every corner for clues as to the fate of the keepers. At the east landing everything was intact, but the west landing provided considerable evidence of damage caused by recent storms. A box at 33 metres (110 ft) above sea level had been broken and its contents strewn about; iron railings were bent over, the iron railway by the path was wrenched out of its concrete, and a rock weighing over a ton had been displaced above that.

However, the keepers had kept their log until 9 a.m. on 15 December and this made it clear the damage had occurred before the writers' disappearance.
The log showed that there was bad weather on December 12 and 13 but that the next two days at least were calm. It was later confirmed by coastal shipping that this was the date when the light ceased to burn. Curiously, the foul-weather gear belonging to Marshall and Ducat was missing, but McArthur’s was still in place.

The Hesperus returned to the shore station at Breasclete. Captain Harvie sent a telegram to the Northern Lighthouse Board dated 26 December, 1900 stating:
“A dreadful accident has happened at the Flannans. The three keepers, Ducat, Marshall and McArthur have disappeared from the Island. The clocks were stopped and other signs indicated that the accident must have happened about a week ago. Poor fellows must have been blown over the cliffs or drowned trying to rescue a crane or something like that.”

Where had the three men gone, and why? Their disappearance has never been solved and now, a century after the event, it never will be. But a possible answer lies in the discovery (not noticed earlier, since the lighthouse had been operational for only a year) that when the weather was settled, the sea at the west landing would, without warning of any kind, often suddenly rear itself into a giant wave and batter the clifftop a hundred feet above. The phenomenon is well known, being probably an unlucky accumulation of ocean swells. These king waves, as they are called on the west Australian coast, have dragged many a fisherman off an ordinarily safe rock and flung him into the sea, drowning or battering him to death. It is likely that this is what happened to Marshall, Ducat, and McArthur when they, for some reason we can never know, took themselves down to the west landing.

Sources :
Seafaring, Lore & Legend : “A Miscellany of Maritime Myth, Superstition, Fable and Fact” by Peter D. Jeans;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flannan_Isles

Pic source : http://s0.geograph.org.uk/photos/62/39/623920_09b3aee2.jpg
07:02 | 4 komentar

Mary Agreda

Mary Agreda was a nun in the 17th century and known to the Native Americans of the West and Southwest as "the Lady in Blue." Sister Mary Agreda claimed that while deep in prayer, in Spain, she ended up in New Mexico and brought Christianity to the Indian tribes there. Strangely enough, when Spain did discover Native American tribes they were familiar with Christianity, lending credence to Sister Mary’s story. The Native Americans themselves witnessed a beautiful white woman wearing a blue cape that exactly the same description as Mary Agreda came down from the sky and spoke to them in their own language. She then, they insisted, disappeared back into the clouds. Nor did this happen just once but over and over again. How did Mary, without ever leaving Spain, manage to cross an ocean and a continent? In particular, incidents like the one involving Sister Mary Agreda, became used as evidence that teleportation existed. The idea of teleportation has been one used in science fiction, and also been the subject of many claims throughout history.

Teleportation is the transfer of matter from one point to another, more or less instantaneously. The word "teleportation" was coined in 1931 by American writer Charles Fort to describe the strange disappearances and appearances of anomalies, which he suggested may be connected. Fort suggested that teleportation might explain various allegedly paranormal phenomena, although it is difficult to say if Fort took his own "theory" seriously, or instead used it to point out what he saw as the inadequacy of mainstream science to account for strange phenomena.

María Fernández Coronel y Arana, Abbess of Ágreda or, known in religion as Sor (Sister) María de Jesús de Ágreda (2 April 1602 – 24 May 1665), also known as the Lady in Blue and the Blue Nun, was born and died in Ágreda, a town located in the province of Soria, Castile and León, Spain. She was the daughter of Don Francisco Coronel and his wife Catalina de Arana.

In 1670, five years after her death, Samaniego told how at the age of twenty-two she had been miraculously conveyed from Spain to Texas and New Mexico, to convert a native people, and had made five hundred bilocations for that purpose in one year. This was recounted more than 200 years later in the first edition (in 1888) of Michael Muller's book, Catholic Dogma. Throughout her life, Maria de Agreda was inclined to the "internal prayer" or "quiet prayer" for which the Franciscans are noted. Why is the obscurity around her paranormal activity on American soil only now lifting? The most obvious answer is that none of her writings, or those about her, were translated into English until the twentieth century, even though her New World activities had been thoroughly investigated, documented and published in Spain as early as the 1630’s.

The discovery of her identity is a fascinating story in itself. During the years of her appearances, members of one tribe presented themselves at a Franciscan mission near Albuquerque and asked that priests return with them to their tribal lands some three hundred miles away. They tried to explain to the padres that the one known to them as "the Lady in Blue" had instructed them to come and make the request. And perhaps they could have made themselves understood had there not been a credibility gap as well as a language barrier. In any event, the tribal emissaries returned with the same request for six consecutive summers, until finally, the story came to the attention of Alonso Benavides, custodian of the North American Franciscan missions.

From the tribal people’s description he recognized the blue cape as that of a Franciscan nun. On this basis he determined to return to Spain in order to seek out the woman held in such high regard by the native peoples of his own mission field. Following the clue of her habit, he discovered the mysterious "Lady in Blue" to be none other than Sister Mary Jesus of Agreda, abbess of the Poor Clare convent there.

For two entire weeks Benavides carried on his interrogation. In the end he was convinced the accounts were true. What convinced him, he explained, was that Mary, under her vow of obedience, knew more about his mission territory than he himself did! He concluded that she must have traveled there bodily. Mary, however, said she couldn’t answer with certainty as to whether her visits were in the body or out of the body. "God knows," she replied and quoted St. Paul who wrote of a similar experience. However, it would be impossible to travel from one point to another instantaneously; faster than light travel, as of today, is believed to be most likely impossible.

Sources :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teleportation;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mar%C3%ADa_de_Agreda;
http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-teleportation.htm;
http://clcpress.com/agreda/agreda.htm

Pic source :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Mar%C3%ADa_de_Jes%C3%BAs_de_Agreda
07:53 | 2 komentar

Foo Fighters

During the middle of World War II in 1943 and 1944, numerous fighter pilots began to see what they called “foo fighters,” or small balls of light that followed their aircraft. At first, everyone assumed that the balls of light were secret German weapons. However, it was later discovered that German and Japanese pilots also encountered the strange balls of light and thought they were American or English secret weapons. Neither thought that they were extraterrestrials. Strangely, the foo fighters never attacked the planes, but instead flew behind them or whirled around them in curious patterns. They appeared alone or in groups. The United States military and the British military both launched investigations, but were unable to account for the strange sightings. "Foo fighter" is a name given to a small, round flying object which followed Allied bombers over Germany during the latter phases of the air war.

Often while on bombing missions, crews noticed strange lights that followed their bombers. Sometimes the “foos” darted about. Other times they were seen to fly in formation. Barracks and lockerroom rumors had classified the “foo fighters” as another of the Nazis’ secret weapons, but not a single one of the glowing craft was ever shot down or captured. Neither is there any record of a “foo” ever damaging any aircraft or harming any personnel—outside of startling the wits out of pilots and crew members.

The “foos” were spotted in both the European and Far Eastern theaters, and it came as no surprise to these pilots when waves of “foos” were sighted over Sweden in July 1946. A kind of hysteria gripped Sweden, however, and the mysterious “invasion” was reported at great length in the major European newspapers. Some authorities feared that some new kind of German “V” weapon had been discovered and unleashed on the nation that had remained neutral throughout World War II.

There are also some reports of foo fighters in the Pacific theater of the war. Sometimes they would appear singularly but more often in groups, sometimes flying in formation. By day they appeared to be small metallic globes. By night they glowed with various colors. These object attempted to approach Allied bombers closely which scared the bomber crews who assumed they were hostile and might explode. Upon taking evasive maneuvers they found the foo fighters would keep pace with them in some instances. Besides the name foo fighter this device is sometimes called "Feuerball", its German name or its English translation, fireball.

Foo fighters sightings account found in ‘Intercept UFO’ by Renato Vesco:
"At 0600 (on December 22) near Hagenau, at 10,000 feet altitude, two very bright lights climbed toward us from the ground. The leveled off and stayed on the tail of our plane. They were huge bright orange lights. They stayed there for two minutes. On my tail all the time. They were under perfect control (by operators of the ground). They turned away from us, and the fire seemed to go out".

Vesco goes on to say: "The rest of the report was censored. Apparently it went on to mention the plan's radar and its sudden malfunctioning". Flying saucer books of the 1950s usually mentioned foo fighters and recounted the sightings of Allied servicemen. Later, due to the extraterrestrial hysteria, publications tended to omit descriptions of foo fighters, preferring to begin the tale of flying saucers with Kenneth Arnold in 1947.

In modern times, if they are mentioned at all by mainstream UFO magazines or books, an attempt is sometimes made to confuse the issue of the origin of foo fighters in different ways. First, they say or imply that both sides in World War Two thought foo fighters were a weapon belonging to the opposite side. They may cite as a source some German pilot obviously "out of the loop" who claims the Germans did not know their origin. Second, they attempt to advance the idea that foo fighters are still unknown and a mystery or possibly a naturally occurring phenomenon. Third, they advance an extraterrestrial origin. Others tried to explain the unidentified flying objects away as meteors, but witnesses said that the “ghost rockets” could maneuver in circles, stop and start, and appeared to be shaped like metal cigars.

The U.S. military, has always denied knowledge of foo fighters. Numerous Freedom Of Information Act (FOIA) requests have been filed, for instance, by this writer as well as other researchers asking for information on foo fighters. A "no record" response always followed. All U.S. governmental agencies queried claimed that they had never heard of foo fighters. This happened in spite of the fact that all known alternate names for foo fighters were submitted as well as a detailed description of the device itself.

This was the situation until the late 1990s. Vesco is by far the best source concerning the foo fighter which he calls "Feuerball". He describes it as a radio controlled missile, built at an aeronautical establishment at Wiener Neustadt (Austria) with assistance of the Flugfunk Forschungsanstalt (Radio-Flight Research Installation) of Oberpfaffenhoffen. The project was under the control of an SS technical division. It was armored, circular in shape, resembling the shell of a tortoise. The device was powered by special flat, circular a turbojet engine. After being guided to the proximity of the target from the ground, an automatic infrared tracking device took over control. The circular spinning turbojet exhaust created a visual effect of a bright, fiery ball in the nighttime sky. Within the craft itself a klystron tube pulsated at the frequency of Allied radar making it almost invisible to those remote eyes. A thin sheet of aluminum encircled the device immediately under the layer of protective armor but was electrically insulated from the armor. Once a bullet pierced the armor and the thin aluminum sheet, a circuit was formed which had the effect of triggering the Feuerball to climb out of danger at full speed.

Once within range, special chemical additives were added to the fuel mixture which caused the air in the vicinity of the device to become ionized. This meant that electricity could be conducted directly through the air itself. Any ignitionbased engine coming into range of the ionized region would become useless, misfiring, stalling and eventually crashing.

A German researcher, Friedrich Georg, recognized a valuable entry in a microfilm roll, titled a 1944 U.S. Strategic Air Forces In Europe summary titled An Evaluation Of German Capabilities In 1945, which, somehow, had eluded the censors. In that summary report German devices called by American Intelligence "Phoo Bombs" are discussed. Sources for this summary were reports of pilots and testimony of prisoners of war. Phoo bombs were described as "radio-controlled, jet-propelled, still-nosed, short-range, high performance ramming weapons for use against bombing formations". Speed was estimated at 525 miles per hour.

Further demands were made using FOIA as to the raw data used to compile the summary evaluation. Of course, denials followed, but finally, after an Appeal, the government indicated that more information did exist concerning Phoo Bombs. Most of this was a repeat or re-statement of the summary document. One document was hand-written and may have served as the basic text of the report. Regarding this information, it seems the government feels it has the right to deny FOIA reguests, no matter how detailed the description may be, unless the requestor uses exactly the same name as the U.S. government uses. The problem is the name "foo fighters" that U.S. government uses as opposed to "Phoo Bombs" just not close enough to trigger a response under the law.

Friedrich Georg's research work which produced the first document naming Phoo Bombs acted like a Rosetta Stone in that it was a translation of their terms into ours. With these documents as proof of American knowledge of foo fighters, the understanding with regard to foo fighters is quite different than the confusion generated heretofore. The fact is that they were the very first modern UFOs. And the government of the United States has known this all along and kept these facts for sixty years.

Questions arise with the acknowledgement of "Phoo Bombs" by the U.S. government. The first is what is the agenda of those seeking to deny this fact both in and out of government? Are these just extraterrestrial "true believers" gone amuck? There is no doubt that the government has known the truth about foo fighters and German saucers in general for sixty years, yet they have never been willing to publicly acknowledge these facts. What issues of U.S. national security could possibly be compromised with such a disclosure over a half-century later?

Sources :
Encyclopedia of The Unusual and Unexplained Volume 3;
Hitler’s Flying Saucers : “A Guide to German Flying Discs of The Second World War” by Henry Stevens;
Mysteries, Legends & Unexplained Phenomena : “UFO and Aliens” by Preston Dennett.

Pic source :
Mysteries, Legends & Unexplained Phenomena : “UFO and Aliens” by Preston Dennett page 27
05:15 | 1 komentar

Kongamato

Kongamato is a pterosaur-like creature from the border area of Zambia, Angola and Congo. There are reports that people have been seeing flying creatures that match the description of pterosaurs for a long time. People have even been, reportedly, killed by them. It would seem impossible that these creatures could have survived to the present day. After all, if they existed surely people would see them flying about as they hunted for food. How could a flying population of reptiles remain hidden? In 1923, Frank Melland described the belief of the Kaonde, native people of Zambia. The natives called this creature kongamato ("overwhelmer of boats"), which was said to have lived in the Jiundu swamps in the Mwinilunga District in western Zambia, near the border of Congo and Angola.

It was described as having no feathers at all, smooth skin, a wingspan between 4 ft. and 7 ft., and possessing a beak full of teeth. When crossing rivers, some of them carried amulets that would protect them from a Kongamato. When he showed them pictures of pterodactyls in books, they identified them as looking like the Kongamato.

In 1925, G. Ward Price heard stories of a monstrous bird with a long beak that attacked people in the swamps of Zimbabwe. When a man who had been wounded by the animal was shown a picture of a pterodactyl, he screamed in terror. In 1942 Colonel C. R. S. Pitman reported stories the natives had told him of a large bat/bird type creature that lived in Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia) in a dense swampy region--supposedly to look upon it was death. Tracks of the creatures were seen, with evidence of a large tail dragging the ground. These reports were not limited to Zambia, but also came from other locations in Africa such as Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya. Engineer J. P. F. Brown saw two flying reptiles in January 1956 near Mansa, Zambia. He estimated a wingspan of about 3 to 3 1/2 feet (1 meter) and a beak-to-tail length of about 4 1/2 feet (1.5 meters). It reportedly had a long thin tail, and a narrow head which he likened to an elongated snout of a dog.

A man was brought into a hospital in Mansa in 1957, suffering from a chest wound. He claimed a huge bird in the Bangweulu Swamp had attacked him. When asked to draw the bird, he allegedly drew a creature resembling a pterosaur. This drawing does not appear to have survived to the present. Reports of prehistoric looking flying creatures are not just limited to dense swampy regions. There are also reports of giant flying lizards from the deserts of Namibia. In 1988 Professor Roy Mackal led an expedition to Namibia where reports of a creature with a wingspan of up to 30 ft were collected. The avian cryptid usually glided through the air, but also was capable of true flight. It was usually seen at dusk, gliding between crevices between two hills about a mile apart. Although the expedition was not successful in getting solid evidence, one team member, James Kosi, reportedly saw the creature from about 1000 ft. away. He described it as a giant glider shape, black with white markings.

Carl Wiman suggested that the Kongamato tradition originated with natives who assisted in the excavation of pterosaur bones at the Tendagaru fossil beds in Tanzania prior to World War I. A possible explanation is a surviving pterosaur, the flying reptiles of the Mesozoic era and maybe they live in a hidden cave. Fossils of Pterodactylus (wingspan 1–8 feet, short tail), Dsungaripterus (wingspan 9–12 feet, short tail), and Rhamphorynchus (wingspan 1–6 feet, long tail) from the Jurassic have been found at Tendaguru Hill, Tanzania. Only two pterosaur fossils from the Cretaceous have been discovered in Africa: a wing bone of an Ornithocheirus (wingspan 14–16 feet) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a neck vertebra from a species similar to the giant Quetzalcoatlus (wingspan 36–39 feet but no teeth). However, the fossil record in South America is much richer, and since the two continents were joined at the time, there is reason to suspect more specimens will turn up.

Sources :
Mysterious Creatures : “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kongamato;
http://www.cryptozoology.com/cryptids/kongamato.php.

Pic source :
Mysterious Creatures : “A Guide to Cryptozoology” by George M. Eberhart page 280
06:26 | 3 komentar

Madame De La Tour

Francoise Marie Jacqueline, who is more commonly known as Madame La Tour or Madame De La Tour is considered Canada’s first heroine. She had long curly hair and often wore an old fashion gray gown. Madame LaTour was born in 1602 and was the wife of Charles La Tour. They were married in 1640 at Port-Royal and it was his third marriage, they had one child, but he died very young. In 1645 Charles LaTour left her in charge. While Charles was away, her husband enemy D’Aulnay de Charnisay showed up at the Fort. Madame LaTour rose to the occasion and led the fort’s small garrison of about 45 men for three days. The fourth day, the fort finally fell by treason. Madame De La Tour was spared the massacre that followed, but died three weeks later of unknown but probably natural causes at Fort La Tour in 1645. She was buried there, but her grave has never been found.

In 1631, the self-appointed governor of Acadia, Charles de LaTour, established a fort at Portland Point near the mouth of the St. John River. Fort LaTour (also called Fort Sainte Marie) was a strategic location to facilitate fur trading in New France. When one self-appoints himself governor, there’s a good chance that another might step up and feel more entitled. Such was the case with D’Aulnay de Charnisay, who also claimed the governorship of the region. Charles de LaTour’s wife, French actress Madame Francoise Marie de LaTouris considered Canada’s first heroine because of the way she gallantly defended the fort from Charnisay’s four-day attack while her husband was in Boston.

On Easter Sunday, the fifth day of battle, the fort was finally captured while the men were praying at their Easter service. Charnisay bribed his way into the fort, and Madame de LaTour agreed to surrender on the condition that the men’s lives would be spared. Charnisay agreed, then immediately broke his word. He forced Madame de LaTour to watch as he had each one of her men hung in front of her. Within three weeks, Madame LaTour died—one bit of lore says her death was caused by a broken heart, another says she was poisoned by Charnisay.

She was buried near the fort, but her gravesite has been lost to history. Charnisay built Fort Saint Jean on the western side of the harbor. Soon after, he met with his own untimely death by drowning while canoeing off the coast. Charles de LaTour then married Charnisay’s widow and became the undisputed Governor of Acadia. But Madame LaTour’s story didn’t end with her death, if we’re to believe some of the local legends.

Some locals have repeatedly seen a woman in an old-fashioned gray gown strolling along the bay close to the former Navy Island in Jervis Bay. Several people have uncovered some pine coffins in the area while excavating, though historians knew of no graveyard nearby. Some of the workers who made the discovery were quick to spread the word that the remains were that of Madame LaTour’s, but none of the claims have ever proved to actually be true—they were some other woman’s bones.

Fort la Tour itself was razed. Its location was lost in the fogs of history. With it, unfortunately, disappeared any knowledge of the resting place of Madame la Tour, who has often been called "Canada's unknown heroine." She is believed to be buried near the fort site. Throughout 1898 two prominent historians, Dr. W.F. Ganong and James Hannay, waged a polite and scholarly but bitter debate in the public prints of New Brunswick. Dr. Ganong cited old maps and quoted Nicholas Denys' early descriptive writings to prove Fort la Tour was "behind Navy Island" on the east side of the harbour. Mr. Hanny did the same to prove it was "behind Navy Island" on the west side of the harbour. "They continue relentlessly to argue the exact meaning of the old English word 'behind'," a contemporary account straight-facedly said.

Mrs. Huia Ryder, an authority on New Brunswick furniture who is also an historian, recalls an old West Side man who claimed he had incontrovertible proof Madame la Tour was buried on his side of the harbour and so the fort must have been there too. On the other hand, historical researchers in recent years excavating on the east side of the harbour have unearthed ancient wall foundations and chimney bases and artifacts which convinced them Fort la Tour was there, in the shadow of today's great curvaceous harbour bridge. Meanwhile the whereabouts of Madame la Tour’s grave is still a mystery. Just possibly, however, significant clues have come to light.

Mrs. Ryder relates a strange story which she heard around the year 1965, but which cannot now be verified by its original source. Canada’s first heroine may still be walking the bay, waiting for her grave to be found so she can receive a burial and the original site of Fort LaTour was finally discovered by archaeologists. Today, a fenced-in grassy hill with a plaque and a Canadian flag flying proudly overhead marks where the fort once stood. Nearby, the Harbour Bridge casts its shadow over the site.

Sources :
Encyclopedia of Haunted Places : “Ghostly Locales From Around The World” by Jeff Belanger;
http://new-brunswick.net/new-brunswick/ghoststory/ghost5.html;
http://lornems.nbed.nb.ca/LaTour/Characters/characters_1.htm

Pic source :
http://www.cmhg-phmc.gc.ca/cmh/book_images/high/v1_c3_s10_ss00_03.jpg
07:20 | 2 komentar

Captain Kidd's Treasure

One of the few recorded instances of a pirate who actually did bury some treasure is William ‘Captain’Kidd, a privateer turned pirate of the late 17th century. Kidd’s story has inspired over 300 years of treasure hunting and given birth to a rash of local legends that would see caches of gold squirrelled away in almost every nook and cranny of the coastline of New York State and surrounding areas, not to mention much further afield. Have these treasure hunters simply fallen for a romantic fiction, or is there really a stash of pirate gold waiting to be discovered? Kidd was born (probably in Greenock, Scotland) in about 1645. We know little of the first forty-five years of his life, but by the early 1690s he was a wealthy and respected merchant sea captain living in New York, with an elegant brick house on the corner of Pearl and Hanover Streets in Manhattan and other properties elsewhere. He had married and was known to be devoted to his wife and children.

In 1695 he set sail for England, hoping to obtain a royal commission as a privateer. When piracy in the Eastern Seas (Indian Ocean) was rampant, and preying on the great Mogul’s fleets to India had reached unendurable proportions, the governor of New York and New England, Lord Bellomont, at the urging of Colonel Robert Livingston, a prominent New Yorker, offered Kidd a privateering commission to wipe out these pirates and thereby participate in a share of captured booty. He took part in a plan to capture some pirates who had sailed to the Red Sea and to bring their loot to England where the investors (who included King William) would divide it among themselves.

Kidd sailed aboard the Adventure Galley, leaving London in April, 1696, bound for New York City and then on to the Red Sea in August. The hunt was on and any ship belonging to a country at war with England was fair game. Sailing with the prevailing winds, Kidd headed south and west until he could pick up the southeast trade winds near the equator. By mid December, the Adventure Galley was in the South Atlantic, wallowing in a dense fog. Suddenly the mist cleared and Kidd found himself in the middle of a Royal Navy Squadron out of England and in desperate need of new sailors to replace those lost to scurvy during their voyage. By law, the Royal Navy had the right to take half the men from any ship flying an English flag. Captain Kidd knew that his voyage could not continue if this happened so in the still of a windless night, he had his ship rowed away from the squadron.

Because Kidd left in such a stealthy manner, the captains of the Navy ships were convinced he was up to no good. They spread the word that he was a pirate when they landed in Africa. Now fighting scurvy on his own ship and desperately in need of fresh food and water, Kidd rounded the Cape of Good Hope, unable to land because the Royal Navy Squadron was bound there. Instead he headed for Madagascar, the haven for pirates in the Indian Ocean which lay another 2,000 miles to the northeast, and landed there in late January, 1697.

All the ships of commerce in the East Indies were available to Kidd and his crew. The race was on: could they capture enough ships to make the voyage worthwhile before succumbing to the ever present dangers of disease and a rotting ship. So William Kidd made the decision to go to the Red Sea to capture one of the ships bearing rich pilgrims going to Mecca. From there he continued his unsuccessful quest down the coast of India - always looking for the elusive treasure that would turn his voyage into a success. By this time all thought of legal methods was gone; success was all that counted because treasure was necessary to pay off the restive crew.

Finally in late January, 1698, the Quedah Merchant was sighted rounding the tip of India. Flying French colors in order to trick the quarry, Kidd and his crew attacked that cargo ship: the prize yielded money plus a cargo of silk, muslins, calico, sugar, opium, iron and saltpeter which could be sold at the nearest port for a rumored 7,000 pounds. The Quedah Merchant, renamed the Adventure Prize, was kept by Kidd as he made plans to leave the area in his by now leaking ship.

The date was March, 1698, nearly two years after leaving London. Unfortunately for Kidd, those two years had brought a change of attitude in England toward piracy. Officialdom now wanted to stamp out piracy in favor of legal trading procedures. And to make matters worse, the Quedah Merchant was not just any cargo ship. It belonged to Muklis Khan, an influential and highly placed member in one of the eastern kingdoms, and he demanded that the East India Company, the English trading company in the East Indies, make restitution. Not only had William Kidd committed an act of piracy he had made an enemy of the commercial establishment in England! He would be made to pay. After an encounter with a pirate, during which most of his crew mutinied and defected, Kidd abandoned his now decrepit galley and sailed back across the Atlantic in the Quedagh Merchant.

Arriving in the Caribbean in the spring of 1699 he was apprised of his legal status and resolved to return to New England, explain himself and use his network of influence, along with the considerable wealth he now possessed, to get himself off the hook. Most of the valuable cargo was sold off and the collected booty was loaded onto a new ship, in which Kidd sailed back to America.

Before approaching the authorities, he spent some time arranging affairs to best suit him. He seems to have visited several spots along the coast of New England, most notably Gardiners Island at the tip of Long Island, where he buried a large cache of treasure, marking the spot with a cairn. He also communicated with the Governor of Massachusetts via an attorney, claiming to have in his possession ‘goods to the value of 30,000 pounds’. As well as the treasure he had buried, Kidd is believed to have given away a lot of loot around this time.

Convinced that he would be protected by his money and his possession of documents showing that the prizes he had taken in the Indian Ocean were legitimate, Kidd surrendered to Governor Bellomont in Boston. But powerful forces were marshalled against him. Bellomont confiscated the documents and had him clapped in irons and shipped back to London. The documents, which were central to Kidd’s defence, were mysteriously lost and only showed up hundreds of years later, conveniently misfiled amidst government paperwork.Unable to defend himself properly, and testified against by former shipmates, Kidd was sentenced to death. From his cell in Newgate Prison he wrote a desperate letter to the Speaker of the House of Commons, promising to lead a committee to a place in the Indies where he had ‘lodged goods and treasure to the value of one hundred thousand pounds’.

It was to no avail, for on 23 May 1701 he was executed by hanging. In a grisly postscript, the rope broke at the first attempt and he had to be hanged again, before his body was tarred and hung up in an iron cage as a warning to all.

The belief that Kidd had left a buried treasure contributed considerably to the growth of his legend. Captain Kidd did bury a small cache of treasure on Gardiner's Island in a spot known as Cherry Tree Field; however, it was removed by Governor Bellomont and sent to England to be used as evidence against him. An amazing plethora of places claim to be linked to Kidd and/or to house a portion of his booty. Partly this is because Kidd is known or believed to have stopped at several places in the area before he gave himself up to the governor – spots where it was common for ships to lie to and/or for landing parties to come ashore for fresh water and victuals.

These included: Gardiners Island, Block Island, Charles Island and the Thimble Islands, all in Long Island Sound; places in Raritan Bay in New Jersey; places up the Connecticut River such as Clark’s Island (sometimes called Kidd’s Island); and places up the Hudson River valley. In some of these places (eg Money Island, a now vanished islet in Raritan Bay), some old coins have actually been found, but given the history of ships, seafarers, merchants and settlers in the region, there is no way of knowing if these have any link to Captain Kidd.

Kidd also visited Block Island around 1699, where he was supplied by Mrs. Mercy (Sands) Raymond, daughter of the mariner James Sands. The story has it that, for her hospitality, Mrs. Raymond was bid to hold out her apron, into which Kidd threw gold and jewels until it was full. After her husband Joshua Raymond died, Mercy moved with her family to northern New London, Connecticut (later Montville), where she bought much land. The Raymond family was thus said to have been "enriched by the apron". On Grand Manan in the Bay of Fundy, as early as 1875, reference was made to searches on the West side of the island for treasure allegedly buried by Kidd during his time as a Privateer. For nearly 200 years, this remote area of the island has been called "Money Cove".

There is also a mention of Kidd attacking one of the Japanese islands of the Tokara archipelago, south of Kagoshima. It is the most southern island, named Takarajima, which translates literally as "Treasure Island." The legend says that the pirates requested food and cattle from the inhabitants of the island. Their offer was refused and so 23 of the pirates landed and burned the inhabitants alive in a lime cave. Afterwards, Kidd hid his treasure in one of the caves, never coming back for it due to his execution in England.

In 1983, Cork Graham and Richard Knight went looking for Captain Kidd's buried treasure off the Vietnamese island of Phú Quốc. Knight and Graham were caught, convicted of illegally landing on Vietnamese territory, and assessed each a $10,000 fine. They were imprisoned for 11 months until they paid the fine. The Dominican Republic's small Catalina Island, in the Caribbean, is being studied since December 13, 2007, by a team of underwater archeologists from Indiana University, after an Italian tourist announced the discovery of an old wreck at just 10 feet under the clear-blue waters, at a distance of no more than 70 feet off shore. There was no evidence of looting at the site, despite its remains being believed to have been buried since the 17th century. It has proved to be the Quedagh Merchant.

Adding real spice to the story is the discovery in the 1920s and 30s of four apparent treasure maps hidden by Captain Kidd or his family/associates in pieces of furniture that supposedly belonged to him. Guy and Hubert Palmer were English brothers who ran a pirate museum and were devoted collectors of piraterelated memorabilia. Through one of their regular suppliers, antiques dealer Arthur Hill-Cutler, they came into possession of items such as Kidd’s sea chest and bureau, which had supposedly accompanied him back to Britain on his final voyage (although their provenance was unclear). Even more remarkably, they discovered a series of scraps of parchment bearing maps secreted in hidden bottoms and hollow runners, all of apparently the same island. The Palmer brothers had the maps checked by a British Museum expert who proclaimed them genuine, but they were in such poor condition that they could not be handled, so slides were taken and copies made by tracing over the photos. These copies have been pored over relentlessly by generations of treasure seekers, but so far without leading anywhere.

One obvious interpretation of all this is that the whole affair was a crude hoax. This is certainly the opinion of the British Library today, where Peter Barber, the Curator of the Map Department, has declared the maps to be fakes. Treasure hunter Paul Hawkins disagrees, and points out that since the original documents appear to have vanished, leaving only copies, any judgement on their authenticity must be suspended. The appropriately named Hawkins further claims to have deciphered the codes and located the treasure island, which he says is in the Indian Ocean. But, it's just a rumor, so far no one has successfully unearthed any of Kidd’s dozens of alleged buried hoards.

Sources :
Lost Histories : “Exploring the World’s Most Famous Mysteries” by Joel Levy;
Seafaring, Lore & Legends by Peter D. Jeans;
http://www.bio.umass.edu/biology/conn.river/kidd.html;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Kidd

Pic source :
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:William_Kidd.jpg
20:40 | 6 komentar

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