Bighorn Medicine Wheel

On a shoulder of Medicine Mountain is the most famous medicine wheel in North America. Described as a sort of American Stonehenge, Bighorn Medicine Wheel was famous with local native tribes as a location for sunrise and sunset rituals, as well as other celestial observations. This archaeological mystery and sacred native site is located high atop Medicine Mountain within Bighorn National Forest, 25 miles (40 km) east of Lovell, Wyoming. The medicine wheel consists of a collection of half-sunken stones in the shape of a wagon wheel. From the impressive elevation of 9,640 feet (2,892 m), the Bighorn Wheel alignments appear to link the distant plains with the heavens.

The middle cairn (stone pile) is a meter tall with 28 uneven spokes radiating to an outer rim. The 28 spokes may represent the 28 days of the lunar cycle. Each spoke is about 36 feet (11 m) long, the outer ring is about 80 feet (24 m) in diameter and 245 feet (74 m) in circumference. Around the rim are 6 smaller cairns about a half meter tall and open on one side. The center cairn and another outside the rim establish an alignment with the rising sun on summer solstice, and one more measures the setting sun on the same day. The other cairns line up with the stars Sirius, Fomalhaut in the constellation Pisces, Rigel in the constellation Orion, and Aldebaran in the constel­lation Taurus. All these star readings fall within one month of the summer solstice.

The hollowed out center cairn may have contained an offering bowl, a buffalo skull platform or some kind of lost instru­ment used for celestial navigat­ing. No one knows how old the wheel is; some estimates date it back thousands of years, but the best guess puts it around 800 years old.

Originally, medicine wheels are stone structures constructed by certain indigenous peoples of America for various astronomical, ritual, healing, and teaching purposes. Medicine wheels are still "opened" or inaugurated in Native American spirituality where they are more often referred to as "sacred hoops", which is the favored English rendering by some. There are various native words to describe the ancient forms and types of rock alignments. One teaching involves the description of the four directions.

The site has a long history with the Plains Indians and other tribes in the Rocky Mountains. The Crow, Arapaho, Shoshone and Cheyenne all have oral histories about important ceremonies being held here. Crow youth came to the wheel as a place to fast and seek their vision quest. Other tribes came to pray for personal atonement, heal­ing, or pay respect to the Great Spirit.

Chief Joseph of the Nez Percé came to Bighorn for guidance and wisdom as his people were transitioning from freedom to reservation life. Today a fence surrounds the Bighorn Medicine Wheel, with prayer offerings attached to the fence. For North American native people the circle represents the cycle of life. The circle is seen as a symbol of eternity — with no beginning and no end — denoting the interconnectedness of everything. The medicine wheel could also represent a microcosm of life, a sort of starting point for all otherworldly aspects. Along with astrological alignments, the circular pathway includes the four cardinal compass points. The four compass points can also be seen as the four seasons, where spring would represent the east, summer the south, autumn the west, and winter the north. The number four also cor­responds to the four sacred elements of earth, wind, water, and fire.

Sacred Places Around The World: 108 Destinations by Brad Olsen;

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Sacred Places Around The World: 108 Destinations by Brad Olsen page 206
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Vera Renczi

Vera Renczi’s trouble had begun very early in life. Born in Bucharest, Romania, in 1903 to a wealthy family with ancestral links to Hungarian nobility, she had no trouble obtaining everything she wanted. Her real name is not known – apparently Renczi is her second husband’s name. Some sources claim that she was the daughter of a romanian beautiful woman and a hungarian businessman. When she was 13, her mother dies and Vera moves with her father in Berkerekul, a town in former Yugoslavia. Before her fifteenth birthday young Vera had been chased from a boys’ dormitory after midnight. Vera’s father’s attempts to curb her radical social life were not very successful at first, but he congratulated himself when Vera presented the man whom she said she wanted to marry. Her father quickly agreed, even though the bridegroom-to-be was much older than Vera.

Vera bore the man a son, Lorenzo, but shortly after the child’s birth, she told the neighbors that she feared that her husband had left her for another woman. The neighbors scoffed at Vera’s suspicions. Her husband was known as a pillar of the community. Vera stuck to her story, and after a few months without the presence of the husband to deny his infidelity, everyone believed that the lovely young mother had been deserted. No one suspected that the man lay in coffin number one in the cellar of the house. Before Vera had ended her bizarre collection, there would be 35 coffins neatly arranged in rows for her to admire as evidence of her powerful sex appeal to men.

Without a mate to keep her home, Vera roamed the streets of the city of Berkerekul, loving dozens of men, until she finally settled upon Josef Renczi. It was shortly after she had chosen Renczi as her next husband that she told friends and relatives that she had received word that her first husband had died in an automobile accident, and that she was now free to remarry. Renczi had sought thrills, women, and excitement all over Europe, and it was not long before he tired of the ordinary world in Berkerekul. Sensing his wandering spirit, Vera made sure that Josef would never leave her side—or at least her cellar. She fed him a dose of poison and watched him die an agonizing death.

From then on, throughout the 1920s and 1930s, Vera Renczi did not bother to marry her victims. If she had made her choice of temporary mates from any other strata of society, she most surely would have been discovered sooner. But she was content to have and to hold and to kill only those whose presence would not be missed by the permanent residents of the town. It was, in fact, when she changed her choice of man of a higher caliber that she was discovered. Invited to a party in town, Vera noticed a young banker, who was obviously very much in love with his new wife. With jealousy flashing through Vera’s brain, she knew she had to possess that man. After being introduced to the handsome banker, her sophisticated good looks quickly gained his interest. It was not very long thereafter that he was learning the techniques of love from a very experienced mistress.

To Vera’s dismay, the banker had a very strong sense of guilt. When his wife announced to him that she was pregnant, he knew he could no longer see his demanding mistress. He paid her one last visit to tell her that their affair had ended. The visit was fatal. Vera already had a coffin inscribed for him in the basement. But Vera Renczi had never before had to contend with a determined wife. The banker’s bride explained to the police that the young man was missing and that he had confessed to having had an affair with Vera Renczi. The police questioned Vera, but she was able to divert them by saying that she did not know that the man was married. Since the police had no other evidence, they had to drop the case.

But the wife of the banker was persistent. She poked around, asking questions and finally turned up enough evidence to link Vera with the disappearance of over a dozen men. The police reopened the case, and a search of the Renczi house revealed the incredible basement crypt with the body of the young banker and over 30 other occupied coffins. In the raid that uncovered this grisly secret, the police found Vera Renczi sitting among her lovers. Inspection of the coffins showed that one of them contained the body of a young boy. “My son,” Vera explained coldly. “He threatened to expose me.”

 Coffins found in Vera's house basement

When asked why she did it Vera’s only explanation was that she could not stand the thought of her lovers in the arms of another woman, so she had successfully kept them “faithful” to her.

Vera Renczi entered prison, feeling no remorse for her crimes; but a few years after her imprisonment she went insane, spending the nights laughing and talking with her dead lovers. Not many years later she joined them. Some have speculated that Renczi' story may have inspired Joseph Kesselring's play Arsenic and Old Lace, yet this is incorrect. It was the Amy Archer-Gilligan case which the playwright used as his model.

Real Vampires, Night Stalkers and Creatures from the Darkside by Brad Steiger;;

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Real Vampires, Night Stalkers and Creatures from the Darkside by Brad Steiger page 23
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Mystery of the Eddy Brothers

During the 1800s, brothers William and Horatio Eddy were famous mediums who, while apparently in trances, supposedly could summon spirits. They were said to be descended from a woman who, in 1692, was burned as a witch in Salem, Massachusetts. When they displayed psychic gifts as young children, their father beat them in an attempt to get them to stop. When this failed, he sent them to work in a sideshow for a traveling circus, during which audience members would attempt to wake them from their trances. This resulted in their being regularly beaten and abused, and combined with their earlier tortures at the hands of their father, their bodies bore numerous scars and burn marks.

The brothers were sons of Zephaniah Eddy and his wife Julia Maccombs, natives of Vermont. Growing up on a small farm near Chittenden, Vermont, both brothers are said to have exhibited strong psychic abilities from an early age. When they dropped into trances, all manner of supernatural occurrences would happen around them. As adults the Eddy brothers, along with their sister Mary, ran an inn in Vermont, the Green Tavern, where they held regular séances for free.

 William & Horatio Eddy

In 1874 the New York Daily Graphic newspaper hired attorney Henry Steel Olcott to determine whether the Eddys were frauds. At that time, one or the other of the brothers would conduct the séance from within a box (usually William’s choice) or from behind a cloth screen (Horatio’s preference). In either case, numerous spirits would emerge, fully materialized, after the medium had fallen into a trance. These spirits would speak in voices and foreign languages that neither Eddy brother possessed, and they sometimes sang in accompaniment to strange music that appeared to come from either within the box or from behind the screen. In regard to the latter, however, Horatio was in plain view, and was not playing any instrument.

Olcott spent ten weeks studying the Eddys and their séances, during which he even took measurements of the spirits’ height and weight. According to his records, the most common apparitions to emerge from the box or screen were two Native Americans, a man named Santum and a woman named Honto, but other races were also represented.

In all, Olcott recorded sighting more than four hundred apparitions. Still, he remained suspicious of the Eddys’ talents, so he paid several men to inspect the box and the Green Tavern for places where human beings posing as the spirits or their voices could hide before the séance began. When he found no evidence of trickery, he declared the Eddy brothers’ talents to be genuine. He subsequently wrote about his experiences in a series of fifteen articles, later published as People from the Other World. Skeptics, however, continued to dismiss the Eddys as frauds.

Olcott would later learn that the brothers were descended from a long line of psychics. Mary Bradbury, a distant relative, had been convicted of witchcraft at Salem in 1692. She had escaped the village with the help of friends. Their own grandmother had been blessed with the gift of "second sight" and often went into trances, speaking to entities that no one else could see. Their mother, Julia, had been known for frightening her neighbors with predictions and visions although her husband, Zepaniah, condemned her powers as the work of the Devil. Julia quickly learned to hide her gifts from the cruel and abusive man.

The Greenhaven Encyclopedia of Paranormal Phenomena by Patricia D. Netzley;;

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Dorothy Eady

Omm Sety was born as Dorothy Louise Eady on January 16, 1904 in the London suburb of Blackheath. She is the daughter of Reuben Eady and Caroline May Frost Eady. Draughtswoman for the Department of Egyptian Antiquities and Keeper of the Abydos Temple of Sety I, her life furnished “one of the Western world’s most intriguing and convincing modern case histories of reincarnation." In 1907 she was believed to have died by a medical doctor after a serious fall. From the early age of three, based on her biography, she longed for her “other home” and recognized it as Egypt upon first seeing illustrations in Arthur Mu’s The Children Encyclopedia.

After being taken by her parents to visit the British Museum, and on observing a photograph in the New Kingdom temple exhibits room, the young Eady called out "There is my home!" but "where are the trees? Where are the gardens?" The temple was that of Sety I, the father of Rameses the Great. She ran about the halls of the Egyptian rooms, "amongst her peoples", kissing the statues' feet. After this trip she took every opportunity to visit the British Museum rooms. There, she eventually met E. A. Wallis Budge, who was taken by her youthful enthusiasm and encouraged her in the study of hieroglyphs.

Between ages 10 and 12 she spent as much time at the museum as possible. After narrowly escaping a bombing of her dance school in London during the First World War, she was sent for safety to Sussex to help out on her grandmother’s farm. She was able to find books on Egypt at the Eastbourne public library which sustained her during those years.

At age 15 she began having “visitations” from Pharaoh Sety I and recurring impressions during adolescence of being in an Egyptian environment. She recalled suffering significantly from nightmares and sonnabaullism for which she was committed to a mental hospital for observation several times. In 1920, Dorothy continued to read and visit museums and archaeological sites in Britain, such as Stonehenge.

At the age of 27, she moved to London and took a job with an Egyptian public relations magazine for which she wrote articles and drew political cartoons which reflected her passions for Egyptian political independence from Britain. During this employment, she met an Egyptian student named Imam Abdel Meguid with whom she kept up a correspondence after he returned to Egypt. Eventually he proposed marriage and at age 29, over the objections of her parents, she accepted and in 1933 booked passage on a boat sailing for Egypt. She kissed its soil upon landing and felt she had come “home” to stay. Upon her marriage into the upper-middle class Egyptian family she received the name of Bulbul (Nightingale) Abdel Meguid. During these Cairo years she had several out of body experiences. In 1935, her husband took an offer of a teaching job in Iraq and the couple separated, she keeping their young son whom she had named Sety, after her favorite king.

Later she obtained work in the Department of Antiquities as a draftsperson (the first woman ever hired by the Department, and worked for Dr. Selim Hassan, who had discovered Queen Khentkawes’ tomb and published ten volumes on his Excavations at Giza, which he credits Dorothy Eady for her drawings, editing, proofreading and indexes for three of the volumes.

In 1951, Dorothy was hired by Dr. Ahmed Fakhry, who in charge of the Pyramid Research Project at Dahshur. There she did some restoration work in tombs as well as kept the catalogue of what came out of the Dahshur sites. She still helped the Egyptologist Selim Hassan with his publications.

Dorothy Eady lived in the Cairo for several years before traveling to Abydos. She set up home in Arabet Abydos, which sits in the cradle of the mountain Pega-the-Gap. The Ancient Egyptians believed this mountain led to Amenti and the afterlife. It was here that she began to be called 'Omm Sety', because it was customary in Egyptian villages to refer to a mother by the name of her eldest child. She catalogued and translated the inscribed blocks from the ruins of the ancient palace and magazines at the site and prepared drawings and plans of the architecture of the Sety temple. She located the temple’s garden just where she had previously imagined she would find them. She spent months in the ruined temple of Ramses II copying down every inscription.

Omm Sety adapted very well to life among the peasants in the primitive village. She also displayed some remarkable abilities, for instance she was not afraid of cobras and even fed them like pets and used ancient spells to “spellbind” them. Due to such powers, the local villagers regarded Omm Sety as a witch and feared her powers. However since she has been outgoing and friendly, she was soon sought out by tourists and visiting scholars alike. It was on her insistence that the world, was laid.

In 1960’s Eady began to write a series of articles and reports for the American Reasearch Center in Egypt that revealed the endurance of the ancient folk and religious traditions as they manifested themselves in the daily lives of her village neighbors.

She retired in 1969 but continued to guide tourists around the Sety temple. During sleeps she frequently had visions of the past that often proved to be quite accurate. Her belief in reincarnation was put down to a harmless “bee in her bonnet” and she did not try to convert anyone to her religious or psychic ideas.

In 1980, shortly before she died, Omm Sety was featured in two TV documentaries. The BBC program “Omm Sety and Her Egypt” was filmed on site in October and features interviews with T.G.H. James and Rosalie David as well. The National Geographic also made a film with Omm Sety and the staff of Chicago House in Luxor called “Egypt: Quest for Eternity”. She later died on April, 1981, and is buried at Abydos.

Omm Sety authored by Barbara S. Lesko;

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Adam's Bridge

In 2002, a mysterious ancient bridge in the Palk Strait between India and Sri Lanka was revealed by NASA satellite photographs. The recently discovered bridge named as Adam's Bridge also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Ram Setu) is made of chain of shoals, c.18 mi (30 km) long. The bridge's unique curvature and composition by age reveals that it is man made. Hindu belief is that the bridge was created by Shri Rama and Shri Lakshman with the assistance of Lord Hanuman and the vanara (ape men) army to reach Lanka in order to find Shri Rama's wife Sita who was kidnapped by Ravana and taken to his kingdom in Lanka. The legends as well as Archeological studies reveal that the first signs of human inhabitants in Sri Lanka date back to the a primitive age, about 1,750,000 years ago and the bridge's age is also almost equivalent.

 Adam's Bridge (Aerial view)

A 2007 publication of the National Remote Sensing Agency said that the structure "may be man-made", contradicting the report from the Archaeological Survey of India which found no evidence for it being man-made. It says the satellite images have revealed an "ancient bridge between India and Sri Lanka in Palk strait".

"The origin of the bridge is a mystery. Archaeological studies have revealed that the bridge dates back to the primitive age, that is about 1,750,000 years."

"Its structure suggests that it may be man-made," it says on page 39 of the coffee table book under the sub-title 'Stunning Structures'.

"This 30 km long bridge, named as Adam's bridge, is made of a chain of shoals and links Rameshwaram in the south India to Sri Lanka."

Vanara building bridge to Sri Lanka

It goes on to say: "This has an echo in the ancient Indian mythological epic, the Ramayana. According to the epic, such a bridge was built by Lord Rama and his followers to reach Sri Lanka. Studies are still on but the bridge is seen as an example of ancient history linked to the Indian mythology."

The revelations in the book, with a foreword by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) chairman G. Madhavan Nair, are in contrast to what the government has been maintaining so far that the setu is formed by giant tombolos - bars of sand connecting an island with another island of the mainland.

Geological Survey of India (GSI) carried out a special programme called "Project Rameswaram" that concluded that age data of corals indicate that the Rameswaram island has evolved since 125,000 years ago. Radiocarbon dating of samples in this study suggests that the domain between Rameswaram and Talaimannar may have thus been exposed around 18,000 years ago. Thermoluminescence dating by GSI concludes that the sand dunes of Dhanushkodi to Adam's bridge started forming only about 500–600 years ago. Investigation by Centre for Remote Sensing (CRS) of Bharathidasan University, Tiruchi, led by Professor S.M. Ramasamy dates the structure to 3,500 years.


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Chapel of Bones

Chapel of Bones (Capela dos Ossos) is a small interior chapel located next to the entrance of the Church of St. Francisin, Évora, Portugal. This chapel was built by a Franciscan monk in 1460-1510, the interior walls are covered and decorated with thousands of human skulls and bones, fastened with cement. The church was built at the end of XV - beginning of XVI centuries in gothic style with the mixture of the Manueline (architectural style in Portugal in XV-XVI centuries ). From the very beginning the building had its mission: as in all countries in middle ages, in Portugal also plague and wars killed many people. As a result the cemeteries grew very fast, and soon the problem raised with storing the bones. At that time monks decided to build a chapel: old bones could be kept there at the same time showing the inevitability of death. They thought this would provide Évora, a town noted for its wealth in the early 1600s, with a helpful place to meditate on the transience of material things in the undeniable presence of death.

 Interior wall of Capela dos Ossos covered with human skulls and bones

The main Church of St. Francis is opulently decorated with golden altars and walls of painted blue tile. The Chapel of Bones is entered next door, through a large arch bearing a painted rhyme reminding visitors of their own mortality: "Nós ossos que aqui estamos pelos vossos esperamos" (“We, the bones that are here, await yours.")

The chapel itself is formed by three spans 18.7 meters long and 11 meters wide. The ceiling is made of white painted brick and is painted with death motifs. The number of skeletons of monks was calculated to be about 5000, coming from the cemeteries that were situated inside several dozen churches. Some of these skulls have been scribbled with graffiti.

Interestingly, the bones of the monks who assembled the chapel are not on display - they are kept in a small white coffin in the chapel. In addition to all the bones, there are two full corpses hanging high on a wall. Their identities are unknown, but there are plenty of legends: one popular story says they are an adulterous man and his infant son, cursed by his jealous wife.


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Mysterious Disappearance of DB Cooper

On November 24, 1971 a man named D.B. Cooper who was wearing a suit and sunglasses, hijacked a Boeing 727 aircraft in the airspace between Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington. After getting on the plane, he ordered whisky and lit a cigarette before passing a flight attendant a note that read: 'I HAVE A BOMB IN MY BRIEFCASE...' Cooper then told the flight attendant to write down his demands, which includes $200,000 in cash in a knapsack, as well as two back and two front parachutes. The FBI agreed to the swap and the plane took off again under Cooper's orders to fly towards Mexico at an altitude of under 10,000 feet. Somewhere over the lower Cascade mountains in southwestern Washington, Cooper stepped out of the plane with a parachute strapped to his back. He was never seen again. The case remains the only unsolved air piracy in American aviation history.

Actually the name D.B. Cooper was nothing more than a mistake. The suspect's name is Dan Cooper. The FBI's search for Cooper included checking the records of known felons named Dan Cooper, in case the hijacker had been careless enough to use his own name. They sent an agent to Portland, Oregon, to check a man named D.B. Cooper. A reporter for a news service heard the FBI had been there and asked the clerk, who told him they were investigating "D.B. Cooper." The reporter used the name in his story, and even though the Portland man was cleared, the name D.B. Cooper stuck with the hijacker.

FBI Wanted Poster of D.B. Cooper

The event began on the day before Thanksgiving, November 24, 1971. A line of people formed at the Northwest Orient Airlines ticket counter, ready to purchase tickets for Flight 305. The flight had originated in Washington DC that morning and had made stops in Minnesota, Montana, and Washington. Soon it would land in Portland for its last flight of the day, a short hop to Seattle, Washington.

A man waited in line to purchase his $20 ticket to Seattle. The man was neatly dressed in a dark suit, white shirt, and a black tie with a mother-of-pearl tie clip. Based on the FBI investigator report, the two flight attendants who spent most time with the suspect on the plane were interviewed separately the same night in separate cities and gave nearly identical description. They both said he was about 1.78 m to 1.8 m, with weights approximately 77 to 82 kg, in his mid-40s, with brown eyes. People on the ground who came into contact with him also gave very similar descriptions.

He wore loafers and a black raincoat. He probably looked like any other businessman traveling through an airport, and no one thought twice about him. He paid for his ticket in cash and gave his name as Dan Cooper. He was not required to show photo identification. He then boarded the airplane and found his seat in Row 18, the last row on the plane. The plane itself was not very full, despite the upcoming holiday, with a total of only 37 passengers. The crew anticipated a quick and uneventful flight.

Dan Cooper asked for a drink (a whiskey and 7-Up) and then took out a pack of Raleigh brand cigarettes. He took one out and lit it, slowly exhaling cigarette smoke into the cabin. Flight attendant named Florence Schaffner brought Cooper his drink. As the plane began taxiing down the runway, he paid for it and also handed her a note. Schaffner sat beside him for takeoff. She was used to having passengers flirt with her, so she put the note in her purse without even reading it. And then Cooper leaned toward her and whispered, "Miss, you'd better look at that note. I have a bomb."

The note was printed in neat, all-capital letters with a felt pen. It read, approximately, "I HAVE A BOMB IN MY BRIEFCASE. I WILL USE IT IF NECESSARY. I WANT YOU TO SIT NEXT TO ME. YOU ARE BEING HIJACKED." Cooper opened his briefcase and motioned for Schaffner to look inside. "I was scared to death and pretty nervous," she later said, "but I do remember seeing eight red cylinders ("four on top of four") attached to wires coated with red insulation, and a large cylindrical battery." After closing the briefcase, he dictated his demands: $200,000 in "negotiable American currency"; four parachutes (two primary and two reserve); and a fuel truck standing by in Seattle to refuel the aircraft upon arrival. Schaffner conveyed Cooper's instructions to the cockpit; when she returned, he was wearing dark sunglasses. When Schaffner took the note to the captain, she also alerting other flight attendant, Tina Mucklow to sit beside him to keep an eye on Cooper and to try to keep the other passengers safe.

Meanwhile, the captain, William Scott, read the note and contacted Northwest Orient officials on the radio. After telling them of the situation, he put the plane into a holding pattern, circling above Seattle for more than an hour while officials on the ground contacted federal authorities and scurried to collect the money from several area banks. Officials decided to give Cooper the money as 10,000 $20 bills, many with serial numbers beginning with the letter "L" indicating issuance by the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, most carrying a "Series 1969-C" designation, hoping that the bulk of that much cash might slow down his escape. The money was also photographed before it was given to Cooper so that officials could trace the serial number if it was spent in the future. While the parachutes were collected from McChord Air Force Base (AFB) nearby.

Captain Scott did not want the other passenger Flight 305 to panic, so he made excuses about waiting for a runway to be cleared before they could land. Finally, at 5:24 p.m., the air traffic controllers radioed Scott that everything was ready and he could land. When the plane touched down, it taxied to an area brightly lit by floodlights, rather than to the terminal gate as usual. Cooper demanded that the interior cabin lights be extinguished, in case there were police snipers outside ready to target him.

Once the plane had landed and rolling staircase was brought, Mucklow made several trips up and down the staircase, meeting the courier who had the $200,000. Mucklow later described the bag holding the money as "a soft, white, cloth laundry bag," and added that it was open at the top and had no drawstrings to close it. She brought the parachutes on board also and showed everything to Cooper for his approval.

Cooper then allowed the 36 passengers, Schaffner, and another flight attendant to leave the plane in Seattle. Captain Scott later remarked, "Everything seemed to go nicely as long as we went along with the hijacker's demands." Neither he nor any other crew member attempted to stop the hijacking. Instead, they followed the direction of the Northwest Orient officials on the ground and complied with Cooper's demands.

As the plane finished refueling, Cooper demanded that they fly him to Mexico. The captain informed him the trip would require another refueling stop in Reno, Nevada, which Cooper did not comment on. He did not even request a specific flight route.

At approximately 7:40 pm the 727 took off with only Cooper, pilot Scott, flight attendant Mucklow, copilot Rataczak, and flight engineer H. E. Anderson aboard. Two F-106 fighter aircraft scrambled from nearby McChord Air Force Base followed behind the airliner, one above it and one below, out of Cooper's view.

After takeoff Cooper told Mucklow to join the rest of the crew in the cockpit and remain there with the door closed. As she complied, Mucklow observed Cooper tying something around his waist. At approximately 8:00 pm a warning light flashed in the cockpit, indicating that the aft airstair apparatus had been activated. The crew soon noticed a subjective change of air pressure, indicating that the aft door was open.

At approximately 8:13 pm the aircraft's tail section sustained a sudden upward movement, significant enough to require trimming to bring the plane back to level flight. At approximately 10:15 pm Scott and Rataczak landed the 727, with the aft airstair still deployed, at Reno Airport. FBI agents, state troopers, sheriff's deputies, and Reno police surrounded the jet, as it had not yet been determined with certainty that Cooper was no longer aboard; but an armed search quickly confirmed that he was gone.

Over the past four decades.There were more than 1,000 possible suspects considered. Several people even claimed to be Cooper at times, but were dismissed on the basis of physical descriptions, parachuting experience and, later, by DNA evidence recovered in 2001 from the cheap, clip-on tie the skyjacker left on the plane.

Many believe that Cooper was Richard McCoy, a Vietnam War veteran, experienced parachutist and BYU political science student who staged a similar hijacking several months later. But the FBI has said that McCoy - who was killed in a shoot-out with law enforcement officers after a prison break in 1974 - simply didn't fit the description of Cooper provided by two flight attendants.

In 1980, a boy walking near the Columbia River found $5,800 of the stolen money, in tattered $20 bills.

The FBI reopened the case in 2008. And in early year of 2011 the agency believed it finally had the mysterious fugitive in its sights, when a woman claimed her uncle was the missing fugitive. Burdened by guilt over her knowledge surrounding the case, Marla Cooper came forward, claiming she had a 40-year-old family secret protecting her uncle, a man named Lynn Doyle Cooper. Marla Cooper also provided investigators with a photograph of L.D. and a guitar strap that he owned for fingerprint testing. In addition, Marla Cooper said that her uncle was fixated on a comic book character named 'Dan Cooper,' the name the skyjacker gave the airline before boarding.

On August 3 the Seattle Post-Intelligencer reported that no fingerprints had been found on the guitar strap. On August 9 Special Agent Fred Gutt disclosed that L.D. Cooper's DNA did not match the partial DNA profile obtained from the hijacker's tie; but he acknowledged that the FBI cannot be certain that the hijacker was the source of the organic material obtained from the tie. "The tie had two small DNA samples, and one large sample lifted off in 2000–2001," he said. "It's difficult to draw firm conclusions from these samples." He added that the Bureau "(has not) come up with anything that is inconsistent with (Marla Cooper's) story", and will continue its investigation, with a focus on locating a sample of L.D. Cooper's fingerprints.

D. B. Cooper Hijacking by Marcia Amidon Lüsted;;;

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The New Hampshire Dwarf

Most cultures throughout the world have myths, legends, and folklore about small Entities who stand anywhere from 4 feet 6 inches to only a few inches tall. One of them is the New Hampshire Dwarf. Little people often represent the world lived in by children: they are imperfectly understood, inferior, and yet compelled to do the bidding of adults. However the New Hampshire Dwarf only 2 feet tall, is very different from the traditional Little People of Britain and Ireland, who are much more human in appearance.

First seen at Derry on 15 December 1956, he was not very human in appearance. He was green in colour, with a wrinkled skin like elephant hide, and his head was high and domed. The ears were like a bloodhounds, the eyes had a film over them like a snake’s, there were simply two holes for a nose. His arms and legs were short, the hands like stumps and the feet lacking toes. Nor did he have any clothes. Alfred Horne, the man who saw this strange little entity was gathering Christmas trees in a wood. He watched it for twenty minutes before trying to catch it, at which it made a screeching sound, and the witness fled. In a different account he said it vanished when he bent to pick up a bundle.

The literature on Little people is vast. Descriptions vary widely depending on the environment and local belief systems. Some cultures have difficulty distinguishing between the real and the mythic worlds, and the cryptozoologist trying to make sense of it all runs the risk of making the false assumption that these creatures have a basis in physical reality. Often, the legends are cited as evidence for Small Hominids, which might include anything from an unknown race of human Pygmies to surviving australopiths or unclassified species of apes or monkeys.

Perhaps some folktales are based on beings that went extinct thousands of years ago and have become distorted, amplified, or hopelessly entangled with other motifs. UFO books often describe entities resembling traditional fairies or "little people," or reptilian or frog-like "cryptids," that are assumed to be "aliens" even though no mysterious craft is reported nearby. Many ufologists presume that any odd-looking humanoid not obviously of the "Bigfoot" or "hairy hominid" type must be an extraterrestrial, even if no UFO is mentioned.

Modern Mysteries of The World: “Strange Events of the 20th Century” by Janet and Colin Bord;
Mysterious Creatures by George M. Eberhart;
20:49 | 0 komentar

William Mumler's Spirit Photograph

William H. Mumler (1832–1884) was a Boston jeweler’s engraver and amateur photographer of no particular skill, until one fateful day when a strange photograph changed his life and made him famous. Toiling away alone in a studio on October 5, 1861, the 29-year-old Mumler had no idea of the fantastic image that was about to develop on his plate. He had just finished taking portraits of himself. The process was long and difficult. First he had to prepare his plates by coating them with collodion (a chemical solution), then bathing them in silver nitrate, and then taking the photographs while the plates were still wet. He had to sit very still during the actual photographing. When he examined his results, Mumler was shocked to see that in one photograph, a pale image of a young woman appeared next to him on his right. At first he thought he had used a previously exposed plate that had not been cleaned properly.

Mumler showed the photograph around. It caused a sensation. Spiritualism, which focused on communication with the spirit world and proving that there is an afterlife, was at a peak of popularity. A photograph of the dead surely was ironclad proof that spirits survived after death. For many Spiritualists, Mumler became an instant celebrity.

The case of William Mumler and the spirit photograph is intimately tied up with the popular press, tabloid journalism, and photographic trade journals at every stage along the way. For the tabloids of nineteenth-century Boston and New York, spirit photography as mediated via the ghostly developments of William Mumler became something like an “urban legend” that people wanted to read and speculate about. Mumler’s ghost developments were a contentious and contested story that skeptics and believers disagreed passionately about, for it was felt that the larger implications of this sensational and strange case had put “Spiritualism in court” and on trial.

On February 26, 1869, the New York Sun published a “remarkable story” about Mumler’s spirit photography, titled “A Wonderful Mystery: Ghosts Sitting for Their Portraits.” Reporting on this new urban sensation, the Sun did not condemn Mumler as a fraud but rather took up a more neutral position, giving equal time to both skeptics and believers who stressed the wondrous and marvelous nature of these recent events. On the one hand, the reporter Hitchcock wrote, “skeptics will insist that there is some trick, and that the ghost pictures are obtained by using lay figures or old photograph negatives, or by some other expedient of that kind.” On the other hand, “Mr. Mumler says that he really believes the pictures are produced by departed spirits who are attached to the sitters by affection or relationship or affinity.” The article concluded, “What our reporter thinks about it he declines to say. If there is any trick used, he does not know what it is. He gives us the facts, and we give them to our readers to think about as they please. The whole thing is a marvel any way, and deserves to be investigated by scientific men.”

Mumler was besieged by people who wanted their photographs taken in the hopes that their dearly departed would show up, too. Overnight he went from an unknown amateur photographer to a celebrity earning top dollar. Not everyone jumped on the bandwagon, however. Some suspected trickery.

One skeptic was William Black, an esteemed Boston photographer. He sat for a photograph with Mumler and kept a careful eye on the procedure. He wanted to make sure that Mumler didn’t switch plates. To Black’s astonishment his photograph showed an “extra”—a ghostly young man leaning over his shoulder. The skeptic was converted. Mumler, Black proclaimed, had a gift for making spirits appear on film.

Giddy with his instant fame, Mumler moved to New York City, advertised himself as a medium, and began charging the outrageous sum of $10 per sitting, with no guarantees. He had no shortage of customers. Even his wife, Hannah Mumler, got into the act. Suddenly, she, too, was a medium who could see the spirits before they were photographed. She described her visions to customers in advance of their sittings.

William Mumler’s photograph of the spirit of Abraham Lincoln 
with his hands on his wife’s shoulders

One of Mumler’s most famous clients was Mary Todd Lincoln, the grief-stricken widow of President Abraham Lincoln. Mrs. Lincoln visited Mumler under the assumed name of Mrs. Lindall in hopes that her assassinated husband would show up in a photograph. She was not disappointed. In the photo Mumler took of Mrs. Lincoln, the dead president appeared standing behind her, his ghostly hands resting upon her shoulders as she gazed solemnly into the camera. Paranormal researcher Melvyn Willin, in his book Ghosts Caught on Film, claims that the photo was taken around 1869, and that Mumler did not know that his sitter was Lincoln, instead believing her to be a 'Mrs Tundall'. Willin goes on to say that Mumler did not discover who she was until after the photo was developed. The College of Psychic Studies, referencing notes belonging to William Stainton Moses (who has appeared in photographs by other spirit photographers), claim that the photo was taken in the early 1870s, Lincoln had assumed the name of 'Mrs. Lindall' and that Lincoln had to be encouraged by Mumler's wife (a medium) to identify her husband on the photo. Though the image has been dismissed as being accidental double exposure, it has been widely circulated.

In spite of his fans Mumler continued to be hounded by skeptics who believed he was committing a clever fraud. He became so controversial that he was finally arrested and charged with fraud in 1869. At a preliminary trial his case was dismissed. Did he ever resort to tricks? No one knows. But as often happens with instant fame, the fall is just as swift as the rocket ride up. Mumler’s personal life fell apart. He and Hannah divorced, and he ended his days in poverty and obscurity, dying in 1884.

Mumler’s ability to produce results set in motion an entire industry of spirit photography. Other photographers, eager to make fast money, promised spirit photographs to a believing public. Some were indeed outright frauds, doctoring plates with phony images of famous dead people and supposed Native American spirit guides wearing enormous feather headdresses. Ghostly faces were shown floating in neat semicircles over the heads of living subjects. Paleforms trailed filmy white garments.

The craze traveled across the Atlantic Ocean and took hold in Great Britain and Europe as well. Spirit photography was all the rage for decades. Some mediums said they could cause spirit images to be impressed on unexposed plates. These images were called “scotographs” and sometimes contained messages allegedly written by the hands of the spirits themselves.

Mysteries, Legends, and Unexplained Phenomena: “Ghosts and Haunted Places” by Rosemary Ellen Guiley;
The Strange Case of William Mumler, Spirit Photographer by Louis Kaplan

Pic Source:
Mysteries. Legends, and Unexplained Phenomena: “Ghosts and Haunted Places” by Rosemary Ellen Guiley page 87
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